Temujin, a Mongol clan leader sought to unify the Mongol Empire under his rule.
In 1206, Temujin, a Mongol clan leader, accepted the title Genghis Khan, or 'universal ruler' of the Mongol clans. Temujin sought to unify the Mongol empire and did so by conquering rivals. Genghis Khan conquered much land in Asia during his rule.
In 1211, The Jin Empire was conquered by the Mongols. This Mongol conquest was done under the rule of Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan began a campaign of terror to conquer surrounding lands. After destroying cities and slaughtering inhabitants, all of Central Asia was under Mongol control.
Genghis Khan dies in the year 1227. Despite his violent reputation, he died of illness.
By 1260, the Mongol empire was divided not four regions, or khantes. Each region was ruled by a descendant of Genghis Khan. Such reigns included the Khante of Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khante of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khante to the Golden Horde ( Russia). At this time, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, assumed the title Great Khan.
Marco Polo, a Venetian trader, arrived in Kublai Khan's court. He worked for the Mongols for 17 years, visiting various Chinese cities on government missions.
In 1281, Kubla Khan attempted to conquer Japan. He sent over 150,000 Mongol, Chinese, and Korean warriors by sail across the Sea of Japan, the largest invasion by sea until World War II. However, after 53 days of fighting, a typhoon swept the Sea of Japan, destroying Mongol ships and any hope of conquering Japan.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. At this time, confusion over rulers emerged, and four rulers ruled over an eight year period. Rebellion also broke out in the empire.
In 321 BC, Chandragupta, a military leader, killed the Nanda king and assumed the throne. This was the beginning of the Mauryan Empire.
By 303 BC, Chandragupta had spread Mauryan land more than 2000 miles, and was the first ruler to unit land in north India politically for the first time.
In 301 BC, Chandragupta's son took the throne. He ruled the Mauryan Empire for 32 years.
In 269 BC, Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka, assumed the throne. Asoka is believed to be the ruler who brought the Mauryan to its peak.
In 232 BC, Asoka died. His death marked the beginning of a period of turmoil in the Mauryan Empire, where land was lost and government was challenged.
For five hundred years, foreigners from Greece, Persia, and Central Asia poured into northern India. These invaders disrupted society, but also introduced new languages and customs to Indian culture.
In 320 AD, Chandra Gupta I took the title, "Great King of Kings". He became the first ruler of the Gupta Empire, and came to power not through conquest, but by marrying a daughter of an influential family.
In 335 AD, Chandra Gupta's son, Samudra Gupta became king of the Gupta Empire. He expanded the empire with forty years of conquest.
From 375-415, Chandra Gupta II ruled the Gupta empire. He was loved and admired by his people for his peaceful, diplomatic ways. He also conquered rival land and increased trade.
After Chandra Gupta II died, new invaders threatened the Gupta. This group of invaders were known as the Hunas. Over the next 100 years, the Gupta was broken into several small kingdoms, most of which were ruled by the Hunas or Central Asian nomads. This caused the empire to end in 535 AD.
In 1398, Timur the Lame destroyed the city of Delhi. The city and its people were completely devastated, and it took more than 200 years to restore order.
In 1494, 11-year old Babur inherited a kingdom in what is now Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Though the kingdom was small, Babur built an army and conquered vast territory, and laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire.
In 1526, Babur led an army of 12,000 to battle. His troops emerged victorious over an army of 100,000 commanded by a sultan of Delhi.
Akbar took power in 1556, and was admired for his liberal ways. He conquered much land and inserted effective tax policies. He died in 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal, the wife of Shah Jahan, died during the birth of her fourteenth child. Her husband ordered a gorgeous tomb be built to honor her. This memorial is more commonly known as the Taj Mahal.
In 1657, ruler Shah Jahan fell ill. This caused much confusion and competition in his family, as his four sons scrambled over who would take power. Eventually, his third son, Aurangzeb took control.
From 1658-1707, Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's third-born son ruled the Mughal Empire. Despite the expansion of territory, he weakened the empire due to his oppression of the people and strict, Muslim policies.
In 1348, an Italian writer, Giovanni Boccaccio wrote "Decameron". This was a series of off-color stories supposedly told by a group of young people in a rural area to avoid the plague.
In 1434, Cosimo de Medici became dictator of Florence and ruled until 1464. He was the wealthiest European of the time.
Leonardo da Vinci lived from 1452-1519. He created an incredible amount of artwork, despite his only 17 surviving paintings. da Vinci also wrote backwards for unknown reasons.
In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Turks. Christian scholars in the area fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts after the conquest.
In 1469, Lorenzo de Medici became dictator of Florence. He was the grandson of Cosimo de Medici and was known as 'Lorenzo the Magnificent'.
In the late 1460s, Donatello created a statue of David. David was a boy who became a great king according to the Bible.
Michaelangelo, a famous artist lived from 1475-1564. He is most famous as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
"The Prince" was written in 1513 by Niccolo Machiavelli. The book examines the imperfect conduct of human beings.
In 1528, "The Courtier" was written by Baldassare Castiglione. This book taught citizens how to become a person that excelled in many fields.