During this time, Temujin, a clan leader, wanted to bring together the Mongols under his power.
Temujin Accepts Title
Temujin was awarded the title of "Genghis Khan", or universal leader. He was crowned the leader of the Mongol clan.
Genghis Conquers Jin Empire
After receiving his title, Genghis and his army of Mongols conquered many territories. In 1211, they conquered the northern Jin Empire, lunching the rest of Asia into terror of Genghis and the Mongols.
Genghis Gains Control
With all of Asia in peril, Genghis continues to destroy and conquer parts of China, including Utrar, Samarkand, and Bukhara. Eventually, all of Central Asia was under his control.
Genghis Khan's Death
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland. In so doing, they created the largest unified land empire in history. (See the map on page 334.)
Mongol Empire Divides
The Mongol empire divides four khanates (or regions): The Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). Each region was ruled by a descendant of Genghis
1275 - 1292
In 1275, Marco Polo arrives in China with his father and uncle, traveling on the Silk Road. Polo served Chinese government for 17 years before returning home to Venice.
Great Khan Sends Fleets Against Japan
The Mongols send great armies against Japan. Koreans are forced to run the ships for the attack. These fleets were successful, and the Japanese retreated.
Kublai Khan Dies and Yuan Dynasty Fades
Kublai Khan dies and the Yuan dynasty begins its decline. Family members fight for power, and rulers come and go quickly.
Mauryan Empire Begins
Chandragupta Maurya overthrows unpopular king Nanda and gains control of Mauryan Empire.
Mauryan Empire Expands
Mauryan Empire stretches to northern India and involves it politically for the first time
Chandragupta’s Son Takes Throne
In 301 BC, Chandragupta’s son assumes the throne
Chandragupta’s grandson Asoka takes control of Mauryan Empire. He followed in his grandfather's footsteps and conquered the state of Kalinga, but after feeling guilty of the death of many people, he decided to study Buddhism and create peace.
After Asoka's death, his subjects failed to keep the land of peace that Asoka had desired.
Invaders Attack the North
During this time, Greeks, Persians and Central Asians attacked the northern Indian border. Although these were not good for Indian territorial reasons, these invaders helped to add to the already richly diverse Indian Culture.
Chandra Gupta Takes Throne
After 500 years of invasions in India, Chandra Gupta I took the throne by marriage. In 320 AD, he gave himself the title “Great King of Kings".
Samudra Takes Throne
Chandra Gupta's son Samudra takes control of the Gupta Empire and expands it throughout a 40 year period of war and conquest.
Chandra Gupta II Rules
375 - 415
Chandra Gupta II ruled from 375-415 AD. He was greatly admired by his subjects because of his great accomplishments. He opened India to trading in the Mediterranean, and he also defeated the Shakas.
Fall of the Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire feel due to a couple of reasons. After the death of Chandra Gupta II, invaders came from the north. The Gupta Empire then split into many small kingdoms, most of which were conquered by the Hunas and other Central Asian nomads.
Timur the Lame destroys Delhi
Timur the Lame destroys Delhi in 1398. A civilian quotes "For months, not a bird moved in the city"
Babur takes the Throne
Babur, an 11 years old boy gains the throne. His elders drive him to the south, but he gained an army and defeated them several years later
Babur Leads Troops to War
Babur leads 12,000 soldiers against 100,000. He was victorious.
1556 - 1605
Babur's grandson Akbar takes the throne. He believes in eliminating all possible enemies in order to keep his position as king. These tactics helped him gain control of the Decan plateau
Mumtaz Mahal Dies
Mumtaz Mahal dies at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. He husband built a tomb for her to be "as beautiful as she was beautiful", later known as the Taj Mahal
Shah Jahan Becomes Ill
Shah Jahan becomes ill. His four sons all want the throne, but the third son Aurangzeb gets it and locks his father in prison to die several years later.
1658 - 1707
Aurangzeb expanded the Mughal holdings to its largest, but many of his people did not like him. He enforced strict Islamic laws such as no drinking or gambling. He also brought back taxes, placed police guards around town to ensure people were praying, and banned the construction of new temples.
Giovanni Boccaccio wrote Decameron, a series of off-color stories
Cosimo de Medici
1434 - 1464
Cosimo de Medici gains control over Florence's government
Leonardo da Vinci
1452 - 1519
Leonardo da Vinci was one of the greatest people from his time period. He wrote backwards and his writings can only be read in a mirror. Only 17 of his works survived
Christian Scholars Flee
Christian Scholars of Constantinople flee when the Turks invade and go to Rome with Greek manuscripts
Donatello's Statue was David from the Bible who became a great king.
Lorenzo de Medici Gains Power
Cosimo's grandson Lorenzo de Medici gains control. He ruled as a dictator, yet looked like he was ruing under elected government
1475 - 1564
Michelangelo Buonarroti was a painter sculpter architect, and poet. He was famous for how he portrayed the human body in his art
The Prince is Written
The Prince was a book written by Niccolo Machiavelli and tells how to gain power and how to be a good ruler.
The Courtier is Written
Baldassare Castiglione wrote The Courtier that taught how to be a "universal" or Renaissance Man