World History Timeline

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Temujin Unifies Mongols

1200 A.D

Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one. In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.

Temujin's acceptance of the title

1206 A.D

In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans. Over the next 21 years, Genghis led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia. His first goal was China. After invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia. The Mongols destroyed one city after another—Utrar, Samarkand, Bukhara—and slaughtered many inhabitants. By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.

Invading the Jin Empire

1211 A.D

After invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia.

Mongols conquer central asia

1225 A.D

Central Asia was under Mongol control.

Genghis Khan's Death

1227 A.D

Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland. In so doing, they created the largest unified land empire in history.

Mongols Divide Empire

1260 A.D

Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates. These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.

Marco Polo

1275 A.D

The most famous European to visit China in these years was a young Venetian trader, Marco Polo. He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275. Polo had learned several Asian languages in his travels, and Kublai Khan sent him to various Chinese cities on government missions. Polo served the Great Khan well for 17 years.

Mongols fail to conquer Japan

1281 A.D

The Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. Both times the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets.

Kublai Khan's Death

1294 A.D

Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.
Rebellions broke out in many parts of China in the 1300s. The Chinese had long resented their Mongol rulers, and the Mongol humiliation of the Chinese only increased under Kublai Khan’s successors.

India

Mauryan Empire

321 BC

Chandragupta Maurya may have been born in the powerful kingdom of Magadha.

Expansion of Mauryan Empire

303 BC

After several years of fighting, however, Chandragupta defeated Seleucus. By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000

Chandragupta's sin takes the throne

301 BC

In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka

Asoka becomes King

269 BC

Asoka's Death

232 BC

Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C

Invasion

185

At the same time, northern India had
to absorb a flood of new people fleeing
political instability in other parts of
Asia. For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India.

Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings”

320 AD

The first Gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by marrying a daughter of an influential royal family. After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the

Samudra becomes king

335 AD

Chandra Gupta II reign

375 AD

Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.

End of Chandra Gupta the seconds reign

415 AD

Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.

End of Mauryn Empire

535 AD

Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.

Timur the Lame destroyed Delhi

1398

He completely demolished the city, and people said "for months, not a bird moved in the city."

Babur inherits kingdom

1494

An 11 year old boy who inherited the power of a kingdom, from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Was driven out, then built up a huge army, and regained much land.

Babur as a general

1526

Babur lead ten thousands of armies

Akbar reigns

1556 - 1605

He ruled india with wisdom and tolerence.

Mumtaz Mahal death

1631

Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39

Shah became ill

1657

When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne

Aurengzeb rules

1658 - 1707

He is a master at military

Europe

Cosimo de Medici

1434 - 1464

Cosimo de Medici won control of Florence’s government. Cosimo died and his family won control of Florence’s government.

Leonardo Davinchi's lifespan

1452 - 1519

Constantinople is conquered

1453

Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453

Lorenzo de Medici

1469

Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1475 - 1564

Michelangelo Buonarroti's lifespan.

A new Book

1528

Baldassare Castiglione