a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.
Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.
Genghis led the Mongols in invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211
after Genghis campaign of terror, Central Asia was under Mongol control.
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their empire into four regions, or khanates. These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia).
The young Venetian trader, Marco Polo visited China He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275
in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.
Asoka died in 232 B.C the empire failed to stay together
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka
Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it. He was the first Gupta emperor
Chandra Gupta's son, Sumadra becomes emperor in
Chandra Gupta II ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.
End of Chandra Gupta 11 reign as emperor
Gupta Empire broke into small kingdoms and the empire eventually ended in about 535 AD
In 1398, Timur the lame destroyed Delhi. Delhi was eventually rebuilt but not for many more years
Babur was a great general, in 1526, for example, he led 12,000 troops to
Babur's grandson Akbar ruled India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. To enshrine his wife’s memory, he ordered that a tomb be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful.”
When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
Aurangzeb ruled from 1658 to 1707. He expanded the Mughal holdings to their greatest size
Cosimo de Medici won control of Florence’s government in 1434. Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family continued to control Florence.
Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, devel- oped a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way.
The famous painter Leonardo da Vinci lived from 1452 to 1592
When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.
Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.
Michelangelo Buonarroti was a famous painter who lived from 1475 to 1564
Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family. In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara.
In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy.
Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504. Michelangelo portrayed the biblical hero in the moments just before battle
The Mona Lisa (c. 1504–1506) is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy merchant of Florence who commissioned the portrait.
In 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly.
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513. It was about
Flemish Painting reached its peak
Queen Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 to 1603.
William Shakespeare was living in London and writing poems and plays, and soon he would be performing at the Globe Theater all by 1592