History timeline


Unifying the Mongols


a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.

Temuiin accepted the title Genghis Khan


Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.

invading Jin Empire


Genghis led the Mongols in invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211

Central Asia is under Mongol control


after Genghis campaign of terror, Central Asia was under Mongol control.

Genghis Khan dies


Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire.

Mongols divide their empire into four regions


By 1260, the Mongols had divided their empire into four regions, or khanates. These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia).

Marco Polo visits China


The young Venetian trader, Marco Polo visited China He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275

the great khan sends huge fleets against Japan


in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets.

Kublai Khan dies


Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.


Beginning of Mauryan Empire

321 BC

Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.

Uniting North India

303 BC

By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000

Chandragupta's son

301 BC

In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.

Asoka died

232 BC

Asoka died in 232 B.C the empire failed to stay together

expansions of population

185 BC

For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India.

Asoka becomes King


Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka

Chandra Gupta

320 AD

Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it. He was the first Gupta emperor

Chandra Gupta's son becomes emperor

335 AD

Chandra Gupta's son, Sumadra becomes emperor in

Chandra Gupta II

375 AD - 415 AD

Chandra Gupta II ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.

End of Chandra Gupta the second

415 AD

End of Chandra Gupta 11 reign as emperor

Gupta Empire ends

535 AD

Gupta Empire broke into small kingdoms and the empire eventually ended in about 535 AD

Delhi is Destroyed


In 1398, Timur the lame destroyed Delhi. Delhi was eventually rebuilt but not for many more years



12,000 troops to Delhi


Babur was a great general, in 1526, for example, he led 12,000 troops to


1556 - 1605

Babur's grandson Akbar ruled India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.

Mumtaz Mahal Dies


In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. To enshrine his wife’s memory, he ordered that a tomb be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful.”

Shah Jahan becomes ill


When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.


1658 - 1707

Aurangzeb ruled from 1658 to 1707. He expanded the Mughal holdings to their greatest size


Francesco Petrarch


Cosimo de Medici

1434 - 1464

Cosimo de Medici won control of Florence’s government in 1434. Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family continued to control Florence.

Johann Gutenberg


Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, devel- oped a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way.

Leonardo Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

The famous painter Leonardo da Vinci lived from 1452 to 1592

Constantinople Conquered


Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.

Growth in Europe


When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.

Donatello's statue


Lorenzo de Medici


Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1475 - 1564

Michelangelo Buonarroti was a famous painter who lived from 1475 to 1564

Vittoria Colonna

1492 - 1547

Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family. In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara.

Northern Italy


In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy.


1501 - 1504

Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504. Michelangelo portrayed the biblical hero in the moments just before battle

The Mona Lisa

1504 - 1506

The Mona Lisa (c. 1504–1506) is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy merchant of Florence who commissioned the portrait.

The Praise of Folly


In 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly.

The Prince


Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513. It was about

Thomas More


Baldassare Castiglione


Pieter Bruegel


Flemish Painting reached its peak

Queen Elizabeth

1558 - 1603

Queen Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 to 1603.

William Shakespeare


William Shakespeare was living in London and writing poems and plays, and soon he would be performing at the Globe Theater all by 1592