The foundation of Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara
The Spartan leader Pausanias liberates the city from Persian rule, and it becomes a member of the Delian League
Roman Emperor Septimius Severus razes the city to the ground only to rebuild it a few years later
Constantine declares the city to be his new imperial capital
Rebuilding of the city and increasing the size of the enclosed area within the walls by 5 times.
Constantine declares the city "New Rome"
During the reign of Theodosius II, the land walls of the city were rebuilt a few kilometers further west
30,000 rioters are slaughtered in the hippodrome after seeking to depose Emperor Jusinian
Destabilization of the Church and State via internal Christian struggles
The first Turks appear in Anatolia and defeat Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes
Constantinople is invaded by Latin crusaders
Michael VIII Palaeologos restores the Byzantine empire by taking Constantinople from the Latins
The cathedral of Haghi Sophia becomes a mosque
Construction of the Topkapi Palace begins
Selim I captures Medina and takes the title of Caliph
Completion of the Süleymaniye Camii Sinan
The monumental Sultanahmet Camii is completed after 8 years
Tulip Period or "renaissance" in the capital
Greece breaks free of Ottoman control and becomes an independent state
Tsar Nicholas I of Russia declares the Ottoman Empire the "sick man of Europe"
Mustafa Kemal lands at Samsun on the Black Sea triggering the Turkish War of Independence
Nationalists claim to be the rightful government and establish a parliament in Ankara
Nationalists abolish the Sultanate
The official establishment of the Republic of Turkey
A series of military coups and unrest
A period of increased tensions between Rome and Constantinople over papal supremacy
Boosted the shattered population by bringing in Christians and Muslims from the surrounding rural areas to make the city a worthy new hub for the empire
The Ottoman Empire is arguably the leading world power of the 16th Century. Empire boundaries are pushed far into Europe. Military success was used to glorify the capital.
Movement challenging the authority of the Sultanate as the empire is in decline
Current established power marked by self-appointed guardians of the state, and the pro-islamic government .