History of Istanbul

Main

667 BCE

667 BCE

The foundation of Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara

478 BCE

478 BCE

The Spartan leader Pausanias liberates the city from Persian rule, and it becomes a member of the Delian League

195 CE

195 CE

Roman Emperor Septimius Severus razes the city to the ground only to rebuild it a few years later

324 CE

324 CE

Constantine declares the city to be his new imperial capital

326 CE

326 CE - 330 CE

Rebuilding of the city and increasing the size of the enclosed area within the walls by 5 times.

330 CE

330 CE

Constantine declares the city "New Rome"

413 CE

413 CE

During the reign of Theodosius II, the land walls of the city were rebuilt a few kilometers further west

532 CE

532 CE

30,000 rioters are slaughtered in the hippodrome after seeking to depose Emperor Jusinian

726-847 CE

726 CE - 847 CE

Destabilization of the Church and State via internal Christian struggles

1071 CE

1071 CE

The first Turks appear in Anatolia and defeat Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes

1204 CE

1204 CE

Constantinople is invaded by Latin crusaders

1261 CE

1261 CE

Michael VIII Palaeologos restores the Byzantine empire by taking Constantinople from the Latins

1453 CE

1453 CE

The cathedral of Haghi Sophia becomes a mosque

1459 CE

1459 CE - 1465 CE

Construction of the Topkapi Palace begins

1517 CE

1517 CE

Selim I captures Medina and takes the title of Caliph

1558 CE

1558 CE

Completion of the Süleymaniye Camii Sinan

1616 CE

1616 CE

The monumental Sultanahmet Camii is completed after 8 years

1703 CE

1703 CE - 1730 CE

Tulip Period or "renaissance" in the capital

1830 CE

1830 CE

Greece breaks free of Ottoman control and becomes an independent state

1853 CE

1853 CE

Tsar Nicholas I of Russia declares the Ottoman Empire the "sick man of Europe"

1919 CE

1919 CE

Mustafa Kemal lands at Samsun on the Black Sea triggering the Turkish War of Independence

1920 CE

1920 CE

Nationalists claim to be the rightful government and establish a parliament in Ankara

1922 CE

1922 CE

Nationalists abolish the Sultanate

1923 CE

1923 CE

The official establishment of the Republic of Turkey

1960/1971/1980

1960 CE - 1980 CE

A series of military coups and unrest

Justinian

Justinian (527-565 CE)

527 CE - 565 CE

A period of increased tensions between Rome and Constantinople over papal supremacy

Sultan Mehmet Fatih "the Conqueror"

Sultan Mehmet Fatih (1413-1881 CE)

1413 CE - 1481 CE

Boosted the shattered population by bringing in Christians and Muslims from the surrounding rural areas to make the city a worthy new hub for the empire

Süleyman the Magnificent

Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566 CE)

1520 CE - 1566 CE

The Ottoman Empire is arguably the leading world power of the 16th Century. Empire boundaries are pushed far into Europe. Military success was used to glorify the capital.

The Committee for Union and Progress

The Committee for Union and Progress (1889-1918 CE)

1889 CE - 1918 CE

Movement challenging the authority of the Sultanate as the empire is in decline

Justice and Development Party

Justice and Development Party (2002-2013 CE)

2002 CE - 2013 CE

Current established power marked by self-appointed guardians of the state, and the pro-islamic government .