Final Exam


Early Christian

Christianity is the triumphant religion, Judaism is allowed/tolerated, but paganism is eradicated. Complicated: the way of presenting Xtian art under the 2nd commandment. Jewish controlled imagery, but Xtian debate of what imagery is allowed. Is it futile/dangerous to try to create image of god? Church is triumphant, imagery used to teach. Xtianity promotes the story and underlying stories of Jesus, to ground abstraction and convert others.

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

359 ce

Junius Bassus was Prefect/mayor in Rome. sarcophagus to lay out body.
Columns give architectural setting, of Greek post and lintel with Roman influence, to separate scenes. Classicizing forms rational space instead of hieratic. synthesizing narrative to one scene. Stories: Sacrifice of Isaac, Adam and Eve, Daniel into Lions etc, Drawn from Old Testament. From the New Testament, Christ and Pilot, where Pilot must find fault. Removes state from situation, Anti-semitic. Jesus entering jerusalem, knows he will die. Jesus' pPassion.
Jesus to temple in Jerusalem at age 12, found teaching elders, Mary Understand's he is more than a child. stories arranged systematically
Apostles: Peter and Paul. Sacrificial victims martyred for faith. Sacrifice of Isaac stopped by God. Old Test Carifice for Faith. New Test on other side. Book of Job. Rich man, devil takes everything from him, Job won't blaspheme, God restores everything. Divine Justice (opposite Pilot) impossible to understand.
Hieratic: jesus is bigger/higher. Put against adam and eve, over position of tree. Above Daniel and Lion. Pilot is justice perverted. The sin of A + E is why Jesus sacrifice must happen.
XXXs used to connect stories.

San Vitale, Ravenna

526 ce

Outside of Byzantine world, newly ruled by Germanic people. Martyrian church, local commission. Standard design. Unhappy mix of forms bc of a taeover during the building by Byzantine. Apse forced in. Justinian conquered area, provided access to fall of Roman empire, needed window onto now Germanic world.
Apse forced through, becomes dom feature. Marble with purple veins, imperial Byz quarries, presence suggests Justinian's influence.
North Wall
Mosaics all over. moving hierarchical way. stories at bottom, then references (moses recieving 10 Cs), authors of gospels/animal symbols. figures engage logically at bottom but upward more flat in space, closer to divine. Separate from earth/divine.
program: Stories, specific choice and particular representation. figures at top removed from sin/despair into world of hope/divine. lowest scenes from Abraham: sarah barren, Abraham old, 3 messengers tell he wil lconcieve, Sarah doesnt' believe. 3 angels at table, 3 loaves of bread in center. bread part of larger issue of the Trinity. Also, the sacrifice of isaac, clear artist hasn't seen this. table matches other lunette of Cain and Abel, but story is about offering/acceptance here.
In center, hand of god reaches down, accepting. all for mass, eucharist feast to obtain grace.
Apse: Moses and jeremiah spoke Gods words but superceded by New Test. Ceiling image of lamb

lamb that god has offered. no sense of place. order appears out of chaos, centered by lamb of god- prayer at mass. 'who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.'
God's son, blood shed. Raises question of who is jesus, more divine or more human. died as man or god?Christological debates. Orthodox says balance between the two, also splits to either side. Jesus is equally god and human. otherwise heresy and death. When Justinian builds church, Egypt differs in opinion, but too big to destroy. San Vitale is Orthodox. highest position is the lamb of god.
Conch Dome/Christ in Magesty:

Hands crown of martyrdom to saints, enthroned as lord and master. hieratic, no time/sace. noon saw this happen. seated on orb of universe, in purple robe.
Below, 2 paired images on north and south walls. Justinian and wife theodora, both in purple, majesty and joined with christ.

beyond normal time, but evidence of human space. clergy, bishop, military forces in balance. Justinian has full authority. not a priest, but sits at mass. Holds bread the body of christ, thodora holds wine. theodora with ladies in waiting.
Ritual and presentation. Old T with New T, imperial portaiture. Church is vehicle for Byz world to show. Germanics have heretical view, church is symbol of orthodoxy.

Anthemius of Trallus and Isidorus/Hagia Sofia

532 ce

Justinian was ruler at this time. Noroyal blood, not apropriate, but charismatic, skilled leader. Dissatisfaction, engages in elaborat expensive reconquering of N. Africa and So Spain, parts of Cicily and Italy. Reconstituted Roman empire. Also building. subjects in Constantinople riot, Burn the Hagia Sofia, one of oldest and most revered monuments. Justinian puts down rebellion, kills 30,000 ppl, decides to rebuild on grand scale. Dominates Istanbul today. Dome, half domes, cascade down. Largest church attempted to that date. Assigned to mathemetician and engineer. Need rapidly, all resources gathered.
Features are familiar. Atrium space, though everyone is Xtian. Still technically palace chapel. Rectangular shape, nave dominated by dome. Centralized plan b/c of dome (vert feature) Grafted onto longitudinal plan of basilica. Little/no concrete, brick and stone. built large elements to describe sphere. Massive unit of sphere held up by piers. half domes to offset pressure/stresses. sophisticated cascading series of arches. not responding to Pantheon, no single model used. Greatest interior space yet witnessed. Arches take dome stress, offset to piers, redirected from there. Piers hidden. Assume more decoraions than now exist. (Iconoclastic plastic revolt, all xtian art systematically wiped out)
Architecture itself used ideals, the idea of perfect shape. Circle is perfect form in greek philosophy, plato. Perfect geometric shapes, balanced like circle square, equilateral triangle. In HS circle inscribed within square of piers. Reference perfection of God. Writer: Dionysis. Written on percieving divinity without images, but through light. feel and respond to it, but cannot capture or hold. Light suggests divine presence. Arched windows, descriped as dome floats on light, as if held up by light itself.
Justinian is the head of state and church, but not a priest or cleric. Rides from gates to church, wrapped in purple. Walks through church and everyone abandons center. Moves to end, opposite altar, mass begins. Only person who sits. Everyone else kneels or stands. Men and women separated. Dome not pitched high enough, collapsed, repitched later, has stood through earthquakes.

Islam Emerges

submission of being to God. Born when Mohammed received visions and became new prophet to Allah. Same god known by Xtians, but must preach new faith. Muslims are followers of Islam.
Jesus spoke Aramaic, but NT written in Greek. All writen bibles are approximation. Abraham 1800 BCE, no Hebrew available. Old T not exact words of god, transcripted. But Mohammed was spoken to in Arabic, with no intermediary. Poetic language. Must speak arabic to have faith. The highest form of Art is calligraphy, the word of God.
5 pillars of Islam
profession of faith, alms, cleanse with fast of Ramadan, make pilgrimage to Mecca, pray 3-5x a day.
Mohammed knew same god, but was most recent prohet ppl of the book, no forced conversion fro xtians and jews.

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

687 ce

Arab population of Arabian peninsula converted to Islam. Nomadic traders with a few cities. Why did Islam spread? Arab armies turn to Egypt. Egypt unhappy with orthodoxy, easily taken, happens a lot. Heretics face persecution to Byz, so Islam is attractive. Spain to China by 755 ce. Most rapid spread of nany empire. Largely remained Muslim.
1st monument. Holy. Mohammed's night ride. Gabriel says time to meet Allah. Take M from Jerusalem, a rock on Temple. Mount Site of Roman's destroyed synagogue. Jerusalem non-Jewish since then, Jews allowed in 1x a year to morn destruction of Temple. Temple Mount, start of night ride. Dome of Rock encases the rock. also sight where Abraham went to sacrifice Isaac.
Sacred place to this day, much contested. Arab world is nomadic, no istory of architecture. Space to pray not required. Turn to Martyrian church design, likely a Xtian architect. Shows islam borrying from Xtianity and Judaism. No images, geometric patterns and calligraphy. building. Not to bring community together, but to mark a spot. Islam. No tradition of marking topography or martyrdom. Church is convenience, not necessity. Judaism has tradition of indoor space, but islam can occur anywhere. Must separate self from mndane/profane world. Must be able to cleanse yourself. Can wash ritually with sand, all parts that can be polluted by world. take shoes off before entering mosque.
No need for cleric. Teach/lecture/help, but not needed to intervene. no need for building. islamc world takes over within 100 years. Territories well settled, suddenly under part of arab empire. Urban world, many convert to islam. Tax to continue xtian/jew, not allowed to convert but pagans must convert. AOpen to men and women, open to anyone who follows pillars. Easy to follow. Submit to will of God. No convusing bits about Trinity. Islamic world: must know arabic. Edge of china to Spain. Bound by language, good for trade. Rules to engage others of faith. Mosque: commmunal/congregational.

Great Mosque, Damascus

706 ce

Xtian community abandons church, whch is razed to build mosqu. That church was built over a roman temple. Prayer hall- hipostyle has many columns. courtyard with fountains for ablutions/cleaning. rayer hall is an equal space for all. stand/bow/kneeel, need space. Special because has tower/niaret to call to prayer. Friday is the most sacred.
Mihrab: doesnt need to be in center, just needs to show direction to pray to mecca. all equal before god, no privelige to be closer, treated the same at death.

Umayyad Palace, Mshatta

740 ce

Islam supports commerse, doing right with miney. (Xtianity has a problem iwth money, b/c poverty is nearness to god, jesus was poor) Mist invest as appropriate in the community. secular arts are fine. floral motives with human heads, animale images with vegetation all merely decorative.

Great Mosque, Kairouan

836 ce

One minaret. trained chanter to make call to prayer. arcade from roman tradition. post and lintel, bilat symmetry. mosque operates at all time, can visit, socialize, read Qu'ran, etc, btwn time of prayer. charitable, with soup kitchens, shelter, etc.

Ivory Pyxis 1


luxury arts to decorate homes. figure on horseback. not in sacred setting, with vegetal/animal ornamentation. Visual interest, not iconographic statements. possession/ownership meant status, but objects themselves not important. refers to lifestyle. abundance of craftsmen to make objects.

Ivory Pyxis 2


see other for notes

Alhambra, Patio of Lions, Granada


palaces, allowed to live well. room for imagery. fountain surrounded with lions (byz influence?)poetic not religious calligraphy. garden, originally planted. Visual/olfactory gardening. Arabic poetry about gardens and senses. Water from fountain goes to smaller fountains, participation with indoor/outdoor

Germanic Europe

Roman's never East of Rhine, not into forests, not much value. By the time of Hadrian, Rome expanded too far. Pressure from Germanic peopes. disruption in Central Asia. Long stretch of stepland/grassland. Enormous, easily move back and forth. nomadic people. Problem on edges, when nomads enter settled area. Germanics with nowhere to go, push against Rome to break through, and take over. Overwhelm in arms and numbers. Don't eradicate romans/Xtians, no emporer. 1476 last emporer overthrown Germanic: tradition of portable art.

Barbarian period, Germanic people bringing portable art to West. Conquered Roman empire. Strong Roman influences (spain, italy, france) Norway Sweden Denmark: no residual Roman presence, was never roman. native populations not known. culture of Norsemen/Vikings
plunderers of Europe. Eventually, the kingdom of Norway. Late to be Xtianized, not until 10th century, but fully developed Germanic sensibilities, ships are the major achievement.

Looped fibula

500 ce


holds cloak together, large jewelry. standard for both genders. Status symbol for Germanics. bilat symm, inlays of gold and garnet. Units set into silver. Intrinsically valuable, shimmers and striking. Nomadic sheiftain, success leading troops, getting plunder, leads to manufactured wealth.
Best collections found from ship burials.

Purse Lid, Sutton Hoo, England

625 ce

Imported african elephant ivory. gold wire. cloisonne work. Can insert garnet, glass, etc. reflective, luminosity. skilled artisan, shows wealth of owner. Importance of line. No mimetic representations of animals. Interplay of line for visual stimulation. has long term visual influence.

Banos de Cerrato, San Juan Bautista, Spain

661 ce

Cut stone is a roman technique. Germanic architecture=visigothic. Based on standard basilica form. Inside: stone column holds up arcade, apse at end. Roman sensibility, Local forms of Christianity unique in visigothic teritory. 3 apses. 2ndary two have purpose in visigothic mass. Roman papacy expands: Regional variation suppressed. theological: who is Christ? Trinity? What relationship with humans.

Carolingian Period

750 - 936

Named for Charlemagne, so more French than German

Aachen, Palatine Chapel

792 ce

1st built by Charlemagne= palace chapel. Built on Roman villa ruiins. Like Justinian needed, Char never went to Constantinople but knows of/in touch with Arab world. Gets elephant and giraffe as gifts. Sees Rome and Ravenna. Aachen modeled on San Vitale. Axial movement has priority over vertical. San Vitale represented Christian Rome. Major difference is that Charlemagne is present at church. Bilateral symmetry, emphasis on altar.
Mistake of letting Pope put crown on head and declared emporer. Puts religion above Charlemagne, accepts by placing throne above altar in church, separate from clergy. longterm ramifications. who has power? pope vs ruler. Ruler is strong, appoints popes, but vice versa too. No ruler in west with church and state. until Henry the 8th. High arcade with 2nd arch below, Roman heritage. 2 color arches are decorativ feature, preceded by great mosque in Cordoba. Not iconographic, but implies interaction.

Charlemagne, Bronze statue

800 ce

9th century ce.
Time of diverse Germanic kingdoms. Northern Europ ruled by independent kingdoms. Frankish slowly taking over area of modern France, by Charles the Great/Charlemagne. Late 8th century to early 9th. Expands into Germany, Italy, and some of Spain. Reunified Europe since Roman collapse. Charlemagne has Germanic heritage. Becomes emporer, is recognized as Roman model of order.
Bronze statue, needs setting of peace and prosperity, as well as technical skill. Charlemagne brought this prosperity. Equestrian image is very old, Alexander the Great was 1st ruler on horse, it's a well established image. Not hieratic, but elevates the rider. Mainging control of horse suggests power of rider, translates as control of wild force, maintains authority and sole control. Unsure if planned from roman statue. Holds orb in hand, the same orb christ sits on at San Vitale, Orb of power, of universe. Emire had little residual Roman presence. After 3rd century CE, limited new Roman architecture.

Oseberg Ship, Norway

815 ce

River ships, coastal ships, and trade ships existed. this is an Ocean ship, for the North Atlantic. Very capable. Plank and skeleton. Planks caulked, not attached. can get close to coast to plunder. Scourge to sedentary Euroe. Skilled woodworking.

Ship-prow, animal head

825 ce

dragon origin. linear, interlaced pattern. Animal to cause fear, offensive. Patterning sets off different parts, shows ferocity.

Stave-church door, Urnes, Norway

1050 ce

Animal interlace. eye to changing nature of lines. translated from jeweler's arts. will be influenced by Roman forms in Christian art.

Germanic invasions- cities in west have declined, by roman fall there are none of importance left. the invasions exacerbate decline. Roman West is sad compared to East. Germans convert to heretic, aryan christianity, 7th century.


Not an Xtian invention, but became very important. Took shape in Egypt. Secular temptation, faith asks of self-denial to be close to God. Egypt moving to desert, monks in caves. On their own, come together only for mass. Concept of poverty, separting from the world. Germanics were Christian but heretics. Relationship with Romans was bad, low on ierarchy. In North, specifically British isles. Ireland never taken by Romans or Germanics. Celts, pagain history, St Patrics' missionizing. Non-urban tradition of clan centers.
Monks/Monasteries become a feature of landscape. Bleak/difficult locations. Rule of Gregory: rhythm of prayer and work, meals. Church, humble living spaces. Irish fall in love with sacred text, especially the four gospels. Cannot preach without text. Translated into latin, learned by Celtic monks.

Book of Durrow, Iona, Scotland

660 ce

Coast of British Isles. Monks copying text in Latin, copying in codex (book). Scrolls were traditional in West. Papyrus in Egypt. but codex replaced scrolls, even in Arab world. only 2 pages, s cannot see what comes net. Demands complete attention and directs. Invited consideration of single units. new field for image making.
Illumination: painted page/manuscrpt. Matthew's image is man. INdicated gospel of Matthews. This book important because made on calfskin. Must kill calf, many calves for entire book. Mean is rare, killing a calf is taking away potential to feed many. Unclear what happened to the meat. Immediately valueable. Lots of work to turn the calf into pages. Ink from oak-gall, caused by wasps. the ink dyed with veg. sources. Spend time in forest to get ink. Major process before getting to text.
Before text, pages. Fram of interlacing, Germanic. People attracted to monasteries, sensibilities matched with celtic. colors emulate jeweler's work. Imitates insets, cgold, garnet, etc. Not about human form, but suggestion. head and feet = man.
Scriptorium, where scripts created. monasteries in bleak isolation. Iona is a flat island, not beautiful. Low horizon, not much to see, little growth b/c of wind. Little visual interest leads to art!

Lindisfarne, Northumbria, carpet page

698 ce

interplay of back/foreground, visually stunning/stimulating. abstract reference. repeated interlace from jeweler's art. No place for accident. Visually, cross no more importance, same level of conrol and attention. Germanic sensibility. New: spiral emerging, celtic item, motif.

Book of Kells, Chi-Rho page

700 ce

8th Century ce.
Opening greek work christos, rest of text in Latin. Spiral starts small, opens, comes back. Lines extending and narrowing, a celtic sensibility energizing/shifting line. Not like Germanic holding line in place. Iris monks/people enslaved by vikings, rich repository of objects, gold silver, and tones. Intermingling of bloods. New interest in text, contemplation and decoration most about visual attraction, not iconographic/context. Books made to preach and teach, also diplomatic gifts. Hostile local rulers with different xtianity 'purchased' with enormous books. not for regular use. function/context beyond just the world of God.

Coronation Gospels, St. Matthew

800 ce

Char. Promotes text. Latin, 4 gospels. Copying leads to mistakes. Monasteries engaged in finalizing one text. Alphabet as we know it was developed. Decorated with imagery, those taken from Classicized Roman forms to tell story.
3D, engaged, taking up space, rational space. Early Xtian images sent from East.

Ebbo Gospels, St. Matthew

816 ce

many same specifics as Coronation Gospels, but linear orientation/agitation. folds don't make sense. spirals at feet, border implies interlace, use of yellow. Classicizing form, but strong Germanic force. German power always present.

Plan of Ideal Monastery, Saint Gall

819 ce

Charlemagne conquers pagans, faced with choice of execution or baptism. promotes church by building monasteries. Plan set a model, shorly after charlemagnes death.
Char took moasteries over (Celtic became orthodox Roman Catholic) used to settle/secure land and establish presence of catholicism. Hierarchy of buildings. Church is the biggest, stone. Form monks there is a group of buildings around cloister/garden. Prayer and personal devotion. East/West alignment. Altar to the east, where sun rises. West is the main entrance. Interface between monks and world. Church is cross shaped. Charl copied the cross shape. Towers for protection agains Norsemen raids to get gold and silver. Especially occurred near waterways. Towers to hide in while the rest destroyed.
Outside of church: germanic wood arch. outbuildings, work spaces, guest quarters, hospital, etc.
Small units with crosses on top. Monks are priests and often give mass. Space needed for monks to perform ritual. Disciplined and organized. Roman sense of order.

High South Cross, Monasterboice

923 ce

Germanic kingdoms with heretical form. Celtic monasteries, non-heretical. Roman, Byzantine orthodoxy. Many not celebrating Easter. Separated meany churches, date contested. Split East and West churches. Bishop of Rome becomes controller of Western Xtians, but not heretics. Irish monastaries around British Isles and in continental europ. Switz, Italy, etc. Don't do ritual/mass in the same way as Rome b/c of a Celtic rite.
Rome: popes decide only one way, decide to convert German heretics to Catholocism. Fight over who converts to what. Irish lose, become roman. Iish monasteries not harmed, but ends celtic ritual. roman catholicism only allowed.
South Cross: crusifixtion included, but only symbolic, not much care of human form. some interlacting. Ring holds u cros arms. narrative scenes of gospels. Limited information. 3 figures, center is most important. Mocked, after resurrection, wth st. Peter and Paul. Important b/c presented to people with no Jewish blood, to gentiles. No interest in reality of human form. Tell importance by composition.
New way of responding/taking up texts.


Charlemagne reunited Europe. Germanic/French. Revival of Roman forms. (Chapel, ideal monastery, illuminated manuscripts). Monks are the royal foundation, by Charlemagne. or old, re-founded by Char. Carolingian Empire collapse due to Norse/viking invasions. Over in 2 generations by 9th century. New Empire, Further to the East is called OTTONIAN. Both empires saw selves as re-embodiment of Rome. Ottonian as Holy Roman empire, 'chosen by God to re-institute Roman order. Ctrl Europ downt to italy, the rest of Europe paid attention. ~100 year presence/aura. Monasteries were imperial projects. Vehicle to reward royal family members. Abbot/abbess ma or may not be clergy, often directly related to the ruler. Political bases. German king power put pope into place.
Ottonian period was a continuation of Corolingian, reinement of changes under charlemagne. Arrival of Byzantine influence. Revival of Byz art after the iconoclasm.

Lindau, Gospel Book cover, Saint Gaul

870 ce

Germanic art, with intrinsic value of gold and gems. Visual sense of value. speaks of glistening, light frames center image of christ. Angels around the cross, distorted with linear movement. Seem to respond. Christ is standing and alive. Not dead or even hanging. Jesus Triumphant, celebrating, only the concept of crucifixion included. An item for the elite, treasure. Books for small number of people. Maybe in passing, but never to read it or actually look at it, no resonance with people.

Corvey, Abbey, Westwork


West end receiving attention.
Towers provide protection, but also major/officially recognized entrance. Stone churches. Roman sensibility. Can't tell what lays beyond. 3 primary doors.

Ottonian Period

960 - 1050

They're all named Otto!

Gernrode, St. Criakus


Intellectual, not structural pattern. regular order, all relation of modular system, defined by crossing. Indicates changing nature of spaces. Move up, elevation. Roman tradition of Basilicas. Can light the interior, gives lighting from above.
higher arcade unit reflects square, distinction of space and order. No symbol/iconography, but just keeps happening. Higher arcade doesnt play any role, genders no longer separated by Roman catholic church. possibly for storage or music.
developed by early Christains but likely decline during German invasions. Gallery on either side can allow antiphonal singing, but did this happen? Roofs at risk of fire.

Archbishop Gero's Crucifixion, Cologne

970 ce

Crucifix, as of yet not seen. Cross used, but never Christ on the cross. Few places seen before. What Xtians preach: God who died on cross. didn't fight or defend himself. Idea of worshipping without fight difficult for warrior people to understand. Death and resurrection effective in abstract, but image of it not convincing. (compare to Lindau Gospel book cover, 100 yrs earlier) wood, Jesus hagning on cross. Head is dropped, Christ is dead, not triumphant. Shift in idea/stress.
Almost life size, in church, there for you to see always. Consider 'approachability' of christ. Order in world. Life is hard and short Vioent death, diseas, and high infant mortality rat means grief and hardship. Can relate better to dead Jesus than distant golden one.
Question: At last supper, what did Jesus know? As god, went through motions, or did he feel anquish of being human?
Never lost, exists in every Catholic church. Moment of death= Jesus knows who we are. Humble, stress on suffering human form.

Gospel Book of Otto III, Enthroned

997 ce

The artist has considered imagery of Justinian. Ravenna under Ottonian control, imagery available. Otto married to Byzantine princess. This piece saved from Iconoclastic revolt. Early Byzantine material all destroyed. Byzantine loses territory to Islamic world, Islamic opposition to imagery in religious setting.
Political statement/uprooting. (saints thrown out of Catholic church, great trauma). Charlemagne defied revolt, and imagery was maintained. AFter ~150 years, Middle Byz starts up with Imagery again. Flourescence of Byz art, Marriages between Bysantium and Ottonian.
Otto III
Clergy and Military on either side, imitates Just. Green field thrusts Otto forward. Germanic sensibility (vs Roman) jewlery sensibility, crown, edging of robe. Not interlacing, figures on late roman/early Byz. shallow space, some 3D qualities. tells that communicating complex messages with imagery is again important. (not much of this in Carolingian pd). Ottonian period rediscovers power of imagery.

Hildesheim, St Micheal's

1001 ce

Cross shape, Carolingian influence, carries through to now. pronounced crossing element. Transect, nknave. Iconographic meaning expandd apse for altar. transect establishes square. crossing. marked on exterior with a tower. space repeated. piers separate space into rhythm. Takes eye to where square occurs.

Bronze Doors of St. Micheal's, Hildesheim

1015 ce

Bishop Bernward. Trip to rome, sees examples of great bronze doors. Back to Hildesheim. Wooden cores surrounded in Bronze. artist unknown. BB reconginzes demand of task. He is in clergy, high ranking and well educated. The Doors show interpretations of sacred script. Doors to front of church, first thing to confront congregation.
Narratives. Can't be cast as one piece. 3D figures cast, then added to surface. Joined panels.Mold of fired clay. Doors match each other. Series of panels, economy of information to keep understandable.
God creating Eve: center is most important. God introduces Adam to Eve. Not significant in Bible. Tree below Adam, Eve tempts. God approaches A and E, sense of composed anger. Adam points at Even, Eve at serpent. Banished from garden, architecture in real world. Intentionally selected scenes of life of christ on opposite side of door. scenes play against each other. 1st great medieval artistic program. Germanic sense of line, Roman sense of form.

The Great Pilgrimage

Ottonian empire collapses after ~100 years. no single monarch is left. United by idea of single faith. Western Europe is roman Catholic, the spiritual unity of Christendom. Martyrs/saints die for aith, athletes of Christ. Now, individuals that ar exemplars to the rest of us. Goal to attain grace for eternal life. Make a pilgrimage to place of relics. Islamic leader closes church in Jerusalem. Xtians cannot make pilgrimate there. petty wars, famine, etc, want to reaffirm faith and life. The Great Pilgrimage is born. Can make it to Rome. Santiago de Compostella, for the Bones of st. James, which have caused miracles. against Islamic forces.

Reliquary of Sainte-Foy, Conques

900 ce

gold, jewel-studded, in Germanic tradition. Stop on the way to st. James to venerate. Ask saint tot intercede with God, to keep you on good side. If you beeve what you do. Connect with network of monasteries. 1000s of pilgrims on yearly basis, some years much more. All to specific churches, need to sleep. Leads to Pilgrimage church design.

Conques, St Foy


Announce presence of relics
church as dominant element in landscape. Towers show movement upward. Goal of both church and relics.

The Romanesque

1050 - 1200

Barrel and groin vaults, return of arches.

Boyeaux Tapestry, Biship Odo and Seafaring


Not a tapestry, but emproidered. Ground is womven linee, 100+ feet!
Northern France, monastery. Exact origin unknown. Work of women. radition in west, well-established assicated with Normandy. Long standing tradition of textiles. But most don't surive. In church, very important. Lot's of labor, visual feast, can decorate interior space. brought out for feasts/events, stored in between. Represents Norman invasion of England in 1066. Successful, last time England was invaded and conquered. Set history in motion since, long term results.
How to explain why to invade England? Justification: Harold in line to throne of England. Captured while on hunting trip and held for ransom. All in relationship of lord/vassel, King not below anyone. Little room for variation. Harold not in feudal rel'n with Normandy. William is leige lord to Baron that captures Harold. Tells release of Harold. H to visit W to thank, large scene. Surrounded by decor, no distractions. H makes sacrifice before Duck W. 2 figures related by gesture, the seated one has precedence, W. Between them 2 items with crosses. H at altar, making pledge of ealty. Big Mistake! H back to England, Edward dies, H is King, but W claimes rulership. Oath of fealty is divinely sanctioned, so can't be broken. Justifies Williams invasion. H on the throne at strange, unsteady angle. Man from crowd to tell H. Witnessed comet, message from God. Heavens not in order, justifies W's action. Boats lined up beneath scene, shows war is right. England loses independence to Normandy.

St Sernin, Toulouse


Maybe same architect as st james cathedral. Recognizable Carolingian shape. Narthex= westward portion, now the holding space for pilgrims to wait before they enter. 2 aisles, though related. allows movement through church, to eucharistic mass can function. In aisles, can move around. Radiating chapels on apse itself. Relics belong in a space, not on n altar. main relic in center, all placed in radiating chapes. Modular structure defined by base, main center of cross.
Enormous, largest thing in Europe so far. Not even roman remains to rival it. Requires technical skill/knowledge. For this size, the arch was rediscovered. If done well, could open knave, could span it in stone so more fireproof. Arches rest on piers. Creates large barrel vault. Thicker piers b/c stress is on sides. So, arches again on sides. Takes stress away from knave. All to make enormous interior space.
France, W. Germany, N. Spain, So. England has great limestone. refracts light. little light will do much to light space.
strength of pilgrimage remains a force today. powerful motivator that united christendom when there was no political leader. languages emerging. New Force= Cluny

Cluny, 3rd church


Post rulership: religion/monasteries. now, one head abbot for many monasteries. Concept called Cluny and the largest church anywhere in W Europe. Begin to send out monks to found new monasteries. Found new or Change existing ones to Clunia. At height, controls 300 monasteries. no rival of power. Popes now appointed by monastery instead of ruler. Generator of artistic ideas. Generated then spread to all others, unification/homogenization of artistic force.
New industry of art for pilgrims.

Christ in Majesty, Bernardus Gelduinus


Stone cut, limestone, dense, carves well but won't hold a sharp edge. Bernardus Gelduinus is the artist.

Jesus placed in frame, separated from everything. surrounded by images of the evangelists. Easy to present. Letters: Book of Revelations/the Apocalypse. John banished to island (different John), spent time, looked at sky, the end of the world revealed to him. Arrival of Jesus as judge. Not as human, but Divine, to sort souls. Souls to heaven or hell, not 'listening' then eternit starts. celebratory image of eternal salvation. only human form for human contemplation, beyond law/time/space. distorted and bizarre. bilat symm except for hands.

Santa Maria de Mur, Apse End, Lerida, Spain


12th century.

High quality limestone not available, result is more paintings. Not a pilgrimage church. Translated exterior images into interior, but same idea: Christ in magest/eternity surrounded by 4 evangelists, large scale painting. Beow are the apostles, below that scenes of Jesus' life, with Mary. Hieratic composition. Eternal salvation with christ is the most important element.

St. Pierre, Cloister at Moissac, Capitals!!


Cloister walled in, where monks live, dine, make scripts, etc. Sealed off. North and south ends are secondary entrances.
Collonade: columns on long base. Arches rediscovered. Central barrel vault arcade holds up 2nd story of cloisters. Capitals and piers can be decorated, a new field.
Capitals: on top of column. Not too big. distilled narrative required. invites a hieratic composition because of shape.

Daniel in Lions Den masculine form in center. Form not essential, just conveys human. Lions are the same, not specific, just beasts. Story: lions refuse to eat daniel. Standard Concept of God.
3 martyrs of Tarragona: died for faith, Old testament image. This imagery found all over, but now it's being fit into capital shapes. Decorative art to use space unsuitable for imagery. 2 different artists.
The cloister was a place to be between other things. Sit and look at capitals. World with little passive entertainment,or images, with little/no diversity or interaction.

Virgin and Child, Throne of Wisdom


12th century. Images for visual stimulation. Not for one on one interaction/experience of faith. Similar to reliquaries, it has intrinsic value. gold and gems extend the value of relics. Not worshipping saints, but a vehicle for prayers. Plea will be heard. Don't engage in consideration of faith. But: dead christ on cross is the sacrifice in front of you.
Virgin: Immaculate conception, wow! 'Mother of god' established in the 5th century. sits on throne, which has specific message. Mary was poor, a peasant in own context, but was in lineage to House of King David. Sits in throne because she has that right. Throne references Solomon, son of David, famous for wisdom. The throne is the wisdom of humanity. Holding baby Jesus/God on lap with hand extended as vehicle to approach divine wisdom. intended to approach the image. Not emotional response, but Gods interaction with humanity through the vehicle of Jesus.

South Portal at St. Pierre


Not the Main door, but public access.
tympanum: half circle above portal. post=trumeau. decorated with archivolts, direct contact with people moving into church. message is in the tympanum. Teaching by visually presented faith, concept of eternal salvation. 3D rendering, deep carving. No trying for where to look, Christ in Majesty, royalty with a crown. House of David lineage. Bilat symm. removed from real world. Germanic linear pattern, agitated surface, visual delight/interest. Evangelists. Unusual/extraordinary treatment of evangelists- feathers, curves etc. Surrounding image are the human figures in heaven, not specific. spending eternity with Christ, not the same governing as humans. 24 elders and the musicians of heaven.

Vezelay, La Madeleine. Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles


Narthex and west portal. Divides people to move through space. Image: hieratic. breaks arch at a moment of time, 2 things at once. After resurrection, before ascension. Moving away from earth. After 40 days, left 11 apostles perplexed. What to do? Role is to preach Gospels and convert others. Scary, only know Aramaic. Pentecost: God descends, gives confidence and gift of tongues. They spread across world. Image shows lines from hands to apostles is the gift of tongues. Not usually chosen for representation for Political reasons. Pope preached first crusade at this church. Destruction of Holy Sepulchre shocked Chrisendom. Catalyst for Christeian west to go against Islam/Arab world. Move to reclaim holy land, led to 3 centuries of crusades. Goal: take xtian message back.

Autun, St. Lazare, West Portal, Gislebertus


Gislebertus the artist, shows last judgement.
Tympanum: emphasis on judgement, when Jesus comes at last moments of time/human universe. No longer christ who interceds. Frightening, some damned to hell.
JC looking into eternity. Truth in truest form. Right: angel (Gabriel) lifting a pure soul. Devils have another soul, throw downt ot hell. Hell is strupped, not enough room to stand. souls placed on scale. Left: architectural setting suggests heavenly Jerusalem. Gislebertus: not a monk, an itinerant sculptor of importance, left inscription.
Something strange- upper left figure with Gabrieul. Last thing is HOPE found in the Virgin. Leans towards Gabriel, away from Jesus. Final plea of a sinner, one voice that can still intercede. First indication that Virgin has changed, has new role in Xtianity. Relief is a reminder of why you are on the pilgrimage.

Master Hugo Bury Bible, Moses expounding the law


decoration, many shapes for visual interest. Rather than reality of fabric/body, etc. Germanic vs Classicising forms.

Winchester Psalter, Locking Souls of the Damned in Hell


New textual areas of decoration. Expanding to books beyond gospels and revelations. psalter: for psalms. Beginning of personal devotion/imagery. Asks individual to engage with faith. Prayers become more possible for pop'n. More readers, pilgrims. Collections of psalms, some imagery describes or just additional decoration. This one: story from book of Revelations. Compare to Autn, Gislebertus scene of judgement. Angel locking gate of Hell/Mouth for eternity. personal devotion leads to grace for a clean soul and heaven. Forgiving God if full contrition. REminder of damnation. Jointed together by theater and theatrical productions, passion plays. Musical and ddramatic, to help faithful get into spirit of devotion. Portal become stage setting, psalter style images though to be backdrops. Names of artists sometimes included, no longer always monks. emerging as individuals with personal styles

Eadwine the Scribe at work, Psalter


Luxury manuscripts on vellum with intrinsic value. The figure is back in space. Self-portrait. Some 3D. body turned, has looked at Carolingian manuscript, in same terms. Germanic sensibility. Curves of fabric, readable, but get's confusing at arm and parts of robe are unrealistic, just invigorating the surface with lines and shapes, more important than reality.


World is more visually attuned. Romanesque dated to middle of 12th century, but really continues to end of 12th. New arrival, rare in history o spot the beginning of a movement, but Gothic happens with Church of St. Denis in Paris. pejorative name for things 'supposed' to be destroyed.

Church of St. Denis, Paris


Start of Gothic era. Royal monastary, dates backt oCarolingian times but Not cluny. Abbot Sugere takes over monastery in bad shape. Kings of France are weak. have Ile de Paris and Ile de
France, but not much else. Local Dukes are stronger. Suger not impressed, decides to rebuild monastery. Turns attention to one area, uses royal and own wealth. Also accesses urban wealth. Apse end: radiating chapels, has relics, but won't do. Decides to change the East end of the church, won't be dissuaded. Builders convinced impossible, wanted it open, glazed with no walls. How? walls support the vaults. Suger holds out.
Pointed arch: decorative, from arab world. Eventually understood to be different from rounded arch and from dome. Pointed arch directs pressure, rib vaults directs stress to specific columns. Used in apse end, directed to specific piers. Rest of walls are non-structural, unnecessary, can be filled with glass. Chevet: head of church, vibrant interior.

Ceiling views Introduced concepts. already: light brings sense of divine, penetrates at st Denis. New: concept that beuty allows approach of divinity. accessing concept of good. appropriate investment for piety.

Chartres, Notre Dame


Gothic art: began as architectural form, Abbot Suger turned St. Denis into spectacular open/glazed church. Beauty to honor and admire God/Divinity. All in Ile de Fance, under Ctrl of French Kings. Many Cathedral churches in area, where Bisship sits. Glergy into 2 groups: Monastic in monasteries, role is worship, not preaching. Other group is pastoral, tend to leity, preach in small town churches. Dates back to early Xtianity. Hierarchy, with Bishop at the top. Some tension with Monasteries., not huge during romanesque. Gothic: Bishop/pastoral return to full force. Cities declined with downfall of West and Germanic conquests, the Ottonian period was not urban. No large scale urbanization since 3rd century (except Islamic cities in Spain). Trade increases, Wool of many types. Best is merino from Spain and England. Raw material shipped to North, changed to fabric. Cities emerging for process and trade. Pre-Industrial Europe: more than one set of clothes is a luxury. Industrial cloth makes it more abundant, many more jobs. Ile de France: has great fairs, good for cloth trade. The Cathedral becomes emblem of urban developments. Money invested in them. Flourescence of uran building limestone available. Notre Dame dedicated to Virgin Mary. New competition, 2 generations to be taller and larger. architexts move, but they take ~1-200 years to complete.

Chartre is best example. There has been a church to Virgin for long time, pilgrimage church planned, church burned but mantle of the Virgin didn't. Took mantle on tour to make Money to rebuild on grander scale.

pointed arches, stress goes to piers. Creates 'web' on ceiling, all pointed. many small units, carrying stress down, bundling allows to keep small. opens area for glass.
Crossing at center, but small units emphasized, proportional system. Strong, longitudinal movement, added to pilgrimage church by height. Strong vertical ascent. (sound moves down church).

Exterior: nave and flying buttresses, to go ever higher. How to take stresses from nave and apse? Swing arches out from piers. Move stress to exterior. No interference with glass or piers. Very tall churches-effected by wind. Vaults must maintain againt wind. mini towers intended to break wind force. Result: loss of exterior clarity. Can't sense interior any longer. visually obscure. Exterior: flying buttresses are overbuilt. unsure, so extra careful. design spawns spread all over Western Europe. Ile de France has tallest/highest. gives pace for glass.
Romanesque rediscovers colored glass for window imagery, Now there are full walls of colored glass.

limited colors available, glass fused with color. yellow and green found later, mostly blues and reds. glass is a new industry. joined by lead. When in window, will move, prevents shattering in wind. architect: stonework, glass inset. held in place by iron rods, holds windows in place. iron since removed, replaced with titanium. Taken down in WW2 for protection. Turns entire church into bejeweled, reliquary space. Northern Lights source, so don't have too much, colors opposite wall. many tories, references to those who paid for the church.
Guilds: protect what artisans do, spread collective $
Carpenter's window:
built by labor of community

vehicle for expression, didactic sculpture, to teach faith. Triplet to reference Trinity. unusual with asymmetrical towers. portals: hieratic, central focus. Above more important than below. Central figure is Christ, with 4 images of evangelists. Eternity, post-judgement. Eternal majesty, ast time and space. Right side is favored, more important. REad left to right. Rests on jamb figures. Can't touch easily, but in the people's space. unidentifiable monarchy, the 'Royal Portal'. suggests spirituality of Rulers of France, where we'd expect the old testament.
Archivalt: musicians of heavenly orchestra, all in arch bove Christ. Deeper carving than Romanesque, much 3D. Christ drapery as pattern, but some reality to it. jamb statues: area fully decorated. decor gives sense of logic, all given pedestals and rooflets.
elongated figures, no more concern with drapery, long lines most make sense. Details: bring figures out into our space. supposed to engage them/respond to them, though high up.
All culminates in this image. Portals are about human existence. History, given visual force. Lefthand portal is the seated figure of Virgin with child, on throne of wisdom. Below, images of life of virgine, temple, end of life/assumption to heaven. references to human events. surrounded by 7 liberal arts. Portal of humans at highest level of achievement/capability/wisdom. Reference to Old Law.
Left Portal: vertical emphasis, changed composition. humans iwth new covenant through relationship with son. This is New World. Zodiac: imagery in heavens, constant. Order in/of the heavens. Zodiac is around Jesus, the epitome of order. all of history in these portals. Universal rule, culminates with Jesus in eternity.

Reims, Notre Dame, Westworks


by Gaucher de Reims and Bernard de Soissons.

Trained on Chartres, previous commisions. Trying to go higher, wider, grander. Thinned the walls, cleared out and replaced with stained glass. Large rose window. Towers hollowed out, skeletal. gains visual interest. Portal sculptures far out. Schools @ churches. highest education of the day, for teaching the 7 liberal arts. geometry: the great art of the period. God imagined as builder of geometric forms, from Plato's text. Romans: spoke latin, should know Greek, but almost no greek at collapse. Disappearance of Greek texts. Selectively survived by Byzantine texts. Preserved in arab world, b/c no problems with Greek philosophy. Circle within the square, geometry reveals divinity with perfection. new way to sense it. Relating to everyman.

Moralizing Bible


intrinsic value increased by gold. story of Christ's life. Patronage page shows them in contemorary garb, recognize the present.

Reims ND Jamb statues


Westworks jamb statues: above physical reach but in visual field. Very 3D, demands attention. Subsidiary decor removed. Angel Gabriel in front of Virgin. She's betrothed to Joseph, Annunciation. 'Blessed is the fruit of your womb.' How would a girl react? V needs advice, goes to Elizabeth. Older, with wrinkled face, pregnant with John the Baptist, neither should be pregnant.
Beyond humanity/divinity of Christ, now a new interest in Virgin's life. Rediscovery of contraposto. Distilled Narrative. Have they seen Greek/Roman sculpture, or arrived themselves? Life of Virgin is new vehicle for engaging, the 'real human story of Christianity.'

Death of Virgin, Strasbourg Cathedral


No scriptural basis, No way to know what happened. Strong horizontal recline, surrounded by 2 layers of figures in arch. Sense of death Fully articulated in logical space/3D figures. Classicizing apostles all scattered, but all are here with her. Should be happy moment of her returning to son/God, but all grief. Should be happy foever, emphasis on the moment of grief. Middle: Christ. Holds up soul of mother, but head still shows grief. mary: Immediately approachable. Mother and intercessor, emphasis on the human. if crowned Queen of Heaven, ascends to royal courts.

Saint-Chapelle, Pais


French King built reliquary. Crusade in holy land, stopped in Constantinople and got relics like the crown of thorns!
2nd floor: jewel encrusted, much red of blood of christ. many relics on display. Can't go see it. overwhelmed by color and visile effect. Bring in to sensory response to the beautiful.

Psalter of St. Louis, Abraham and Angels, Paris


Shown in front of Gothic cathedral. within own frame of reference, not past.

Rottgen Pieta and Lamentation

1300 - 1305

Interest in immediacy, make faith speak to human moment. Both about the removal of Jesus from the cross, the moment of Death. Culmination of faith: death followed by resurrection. Momentary grief, unspeakable. virgin confronting dead son. wheterh she knew or not doesn't matter, only the moment of total grief.

anti-classicizing, all exaggerated.

Virgin saying goodbye. last moments. neither about what's next, or soul. only pain of being human. to suffer: your god understands. Time of black death! everywhere. confront that experience. go to god who knows what it is to be human, knows pain. Empathy, allows grief. Hope, because human experience is valued.

Virgin and Child, Paris, Notre Dame


14th C. CE. exaggerated contraposto pose, holding child on hip. S-curve line is sensuous, exploited to emphasize transitory nature, temporal nature. won't last. Can't hold child like this for long. Emphasis on engagement between mother and child. Gothic mind: Who exactly was Mary? Not well described in Bible. Holds child as a mother does, but does she know of terrible death? Vessel, or participant? Queen of Heaven, wears a crown.

Jewelry Casket, Castle of Love


Gothic: all separated into courst and ranks. courtly life, presence. secular. knights, dukes, kings, etc. Dominated by role of marital fidelity. Concept of courtly love. Married or betrothed woman, virtue is important. Jousting to show virility, fight for intentions of woman who is take. 'chaste relationship'. Can carry colors of knight.
ladies in balcony, old colors of jousting knights. immediacy: all dressed in look of the day, current events. courts interested in own world, reflections of own world. Mary is the quintessential representative of courtly love.

Simoni Martini Annunciation


Dressed in blue (her color) of lapis lazuli, crushed to make paint. Intrinsically valuable. against red. Red paint isn't expensive, but dyed red cloth is. shows she is richly dressed on throne, though understood to be poor. Angel in brocade: statement of wealth. Altarpiece all in gold leaf, int. valuable.
Materials and presentation of characters holds meaning. Virgin's pose not possible, but elegant. To create visual interest, and asks question: How does virgin respond? leaning away. lilies remind of chastity. Style: International Gothic.
Consistent emphasis on beauty in Gothic era, virgin always elegant, young tall.

Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreaux


Gilded. reminder of preciousness.