Gothic art: began as architectural form, Abbot Suger turned St. Denis into spectacular open/glazed church. Beauty to honor and admire God/Divinity. All in Ile de Fance, under Ctrl of French Kings. Many Cathedral churches in area, where Bisship sits. Glergy into 2 groups: Monastic in monasteries, role is worship, not preaching. Other group is pastoral, tend to leity, preach in small town churches. Dates back to early Xtianity. Hierarchy, with Bishop at the top. Some tension with Monasteries., not huge during romanesque. Gothic: Bishop/pastoral return to full force. Cities declined with downfall of West and Germanic conquests, the Ottonian period was not urban. No large scale urbanization since 3rd century (except Islamic cities in Spain). Trade increases, Wool of many types. Best is merino from Spain and England. Raw material shipped to North, changed to fabric. Cities emerging for process and trade. Pre-Industrial Europe: more than one set of clothes is a luxury. Industrial cloth makes it more abundant, many more jobs. Ile de France: has great fairs, good for cloth trade. The Cathedral becomes emblem of urban developments. Money invested in them. Flourescence of uran building limestone available. Notre Dame dedicated to Virgin Mary. New competition, 2 generations to be taller and larger. architexts move, but they take ~1-200 years to complete.
Chartre is best example. There has been a church to Virgin for long time, pilgrimage church planned, church burned but mantle of the Virgin didn't. Took mantle on tour to make Money to rebuild on grander scale.
pointed arches, stress goes to piers. Creates 'web' on ceiling, all pointed. many small units, carrying stress down, bundling allows to keep small. opens area for glass.
Crossing at center, but small units emphasized, proportional system. Strong, longitudinal movement, added to pilgrimage church by height. Strong vertical ascent. (sound moves down church).
Exterior: nave and flying buttresses, to go ever higher. How to take stresses from nave and apse? Swing arches out from piers. Move stress to exterior. No interference with glass or piers. Very tall churches-effected by wind. Vaults must maintain againt wind. mini towers intended to break wind force. Result: loss of exterior clarity. Can't sense interior any longer. visually obscure. Exterior: flying buttresses are overbuilt. unsure, so extra careful. design spawns spread all over Western Europe. Ile de France has tallest/highest. gives pace for glass.
Romanesque rediscovers colored glass for window imagery, Now there are full walls of colored glass.
limited colors available, glass fused with color. yellow and green found later, mostly blues and reds. glass is a new industry. joined by lead. When in window, will move, prevents shattering in wind. architect: stonework, glass inset. held in place by iron rods, holds windows in place. iron since removed, replaced with titanium. Taken down in WW2 for protection. Turns entire church into bejeweled, reliquary space. Northern Lights source, so don't have too much, colors opposite wall. many tories, references to those who paid for the church.
Guilds: protect what artisans do, spread collective $
built by labor of community
vehicle for expression, didactic sculpture, to teach faith. Triplet to reference Trinity. unusual with asymmetrical towers. portals: hieratic, central focus. Above more important than below. Central figure is Christ, with 4 images of evangelists. Eternity, post-judgement. Eternal majesty, ast time and space. Right side is favored, more important. REad left to right. Rests on jamb figures. Can't touch easily, but in the people's space. unidentifiable monarchy, the 'Royal Portal'. suggests spirituality of Rulers of France, where we'd expect the old testament.
Archivalt: musicians of heavenly orchestra, all in arch bove Christ. Deeper carving than Romanesque, much 3D. Christ drapery as pattern, but some reality to it. jamb statues: area fully decorated. decor gives sense of logic, all given pedestals and rooflets.
elongated figures, no more concern with drapery, long lines most make sense. Details: bring figures out into our space. supposed to engage them/respond to them, though high up.
All culminates in this image. Portals are about human existence. History, given visual force. Lefthand portal is the seated figure of Virgin with child, on throne of wisdom. Below, images of life of virgine, temple, end of life/assumption to heaven. references to human events. surrounded by 7 liberal arts. Portal of humans at highest level of achievement/capability/wisdom. Reference to Old Law.
Left Portal: vertical emphasis, changed composition. humans iwth new covenant through relationship with son. This is New World. Zodiac: imagery in heavens, constant. Order in/of the heavens. Zodiac is around Jesus, the epitome of order. all of history in these portals. Universal rule, culminates with Jesus in eternity.