Temujin, was a Mongol clan leader. In 1200 AD, he tried to unify the Mongols under his own leadership.
Temujin, in his attempt to unify the Mongols, gave himself a new name in 1206. This name was Genghis Kahn, or "universal leader".
In 1211, Genghis Kahn led his armies across the Gobi Desert. This was in a conquest against the Jin Dynasty in China.
By 1225, all of Central Asia was under control of the Mongols. They had destroyed Ukar, Samakrand, and Bukhara.
Genghis Kahn, the great Mongol ruler, died from an illness in 1227. However his sons and grandsons continued to expand his empire.
In 1260, the Mongols divided their massive empire into four regions. These regions were called Kahnates.there was the Kahnate of the Great Kahn, the Kanate of Chagati, the Ilkhanate, and the Kanate of the Golden Horde.
Marco Polo traveled in caravans with his father and uncle and finally arrives in Kublai Kahn's court. Marco Polo was sent on many government missions for Kublai Kahn in the time he was there.
In 1281, the Mongols sent huge fleets of ships against Japan. They fought to a standstill, until a typhoon came and wiped out the Mongols.
Marco Polo served the Great Kahn for 17 years. Finally, in 1292, he made his trip back to Venice where his stories would be written into a book.
Chandragupta began the Mauryan Empire by claiming the throne in 321 BC. He conquered lands by raising an army of over 600,000 soldiers.
By 303 BC, the Mauryan Empire ha expanded to over 2,000 miles under Chandraguptas's rule. It stretched from Magadha to the Indus.
Chandragupta's son took the throne in 301 BC. He ruled for 32 years.
Chandraguptas's grandson, Asoka, took the throne. After leading a bloody war, Asoka took to teaching peace and Buddhism. He brought the empire to its greatest heights.
In 232, Asoka died. This left the empire in turmoil and chaos.
Many groups of Greeks, Persians, and others poured into India to invade after Asoka's death. However, they also brought many new ideas to Indian culture.
Chandra Gupta, of no relation to Chandragupta, began the Gupta empire by taking the throne. He called himself the "Great King of Kings".
Chandra Gupta's son, Samudra Gupta, took the throne in 335. Through 40 years of conquest, he expanded much of the empire.
Chandra Gupta II took the throne in 375. He engaged in much trade with the Mediterranean area. His rule ended in 415.
For 100 years after Chandra Gupta II's death, the Gupta empire broke into many small kingdoms due to invaders. Finally, in 535, the empire came to an end.
Timur the Lame, a Mughal leader, destroyed Delhi in 1398. The city was completely gone, until it was later rebuilt.
Babur, an 11 year old boy, inherited land near present day Uzbekistan in 1494. He later went on to build an army and lay the foundation for Mughals.
In 1526, Babur led his army of 12,000 troops to India. They came out victorious against a sultan of Delhi's 100,000 man army.
Abkar, Babur's grandson, took the throne in 1556. He was a great ruler and managed to unify 100 million people, among other accomplishments.
Mumtaz Muhal, wife to Shah Jahan (a Mughal emperor), died in 1631. In her memory her husband built a great monument, called the Taj Mahal, which still stands today.
Aurangzeb, a very aggressive ruler, came to power in 1658. He lost the respect of his people through his harsh ways, and the Mughal Empire eventually fell apart because of him.
In 1348, the Decameron, a book of realistic stories was written. It was written by Giovanni Boccaccio and presented tragic and comic views on life.
In 1434, Cosimo took control of Florence's government. Cosimo was the wealthiest European of the time and controlled the government until he died in 1464.
In 1440, Johann Gutenberg developed a technology called the printing press. This development made it easy to print and process books quickly.
Leonardo da Vinci, the great artist, was born in 1452. He was a master sculpter and painter and died in 1519.
In 1453, the Turks conquered Constantinople. Christian scholars who fled to Rome because of this brought Greek manuscripts to Rome during this time.
In 1453, the great Hundred Years War came to an end. The war was between France and England and its ending brought peace to the many cities of both countries.
Donatello created a statue of the king David in the late 1460s. This statue was the first large, free standing nude statue of the Renaissance.
In 1469, Lorenzo de Medici came to power over Florence. He was the grandson of Cosimo de Medici and served as the dictator of Florence.
In 1475, another Renaissance man and great artist was born. Michaelangelo. He was most known for his sculptures and paintings and died in 1564.
In 1492, the great female writer Vittoria Colonna was born. She wrote many great sonnets and poems about personal matters rather than politics, and died in 1547
In 1494, a French king came to power and launched an invasion of Italy. As a result, many Italian artists and writers fled to northern Italy and brought with them their paintings and documents.
In 1401, Michaelangelo began sculpting the great statue of David. He finished the 18 foot sculpture in 1404.
In 1504, da Vinci began painting the great Mona Lisa. This painting is thought to be of Lisa Gerardini.
In 1509, Erasmus completed his most famous work, The Praise of Folly. This was a comical book that made fun of many kinds of people.
In 1513, a book called The Prince was written by Niccoló Macciavelli. It was like a political guidebook and told of the imperfection of humans.
In 1516, Thomas More wrote the book Utopia. In it, he depicted a world with no war, greed, or sickness.
In 1528, a book called The Courtier was written by Baldassare Castiglione. The book taught a person how to become a Renaissance Man - charming, witty, and educated.
In 1550, the painter Pieter Bruegel painted The Elder. This painting brought Flemish Painting to its peak at this time.
In 1558, Queen Elizabeth I came to power. She was a great queen and was fluent in many languages and educated in poetry and music.
In 1592, the famous playwright William Shakespeare moved to London. There, he began writing plays and poems and started his career as a writer.