11 originale Staaten: Belgien, Deutschland, Irland, Spanien, Frankreich, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlände, Österreich, Portugal und Finnland
Der Euro wird als Buchgeld eingeführt.
1/1/2000 - 1/1/2002
Der Euro wird als Bargeld eingeführt.
3/2007 - 10/2008
Rettungspaket für Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac
Lehman Brothers meldet Insolvenz an.
€200 Milliarden Konjunkturpaket
die Anglo Irish Bank wird von der irischen Regierung verstaatlicht
protests in Dublin
Ireland cuts $13.3B in spending
The country outlines its first wave of spending cuts. Another $5 billion in reductions comes later in the year.
Greek socialists take power
The new prime minister, George Papandreou, had pledged on the campaign trail to spend billions to help jumpstart a lagging economy and create jobs
A rapidly ballooning deficit forces Greece's new government to launch an austerity plan. The unpopular measures include a freeze in public sector hiring and a 10-per-cent cut to social security and government operating expenditures.
continued austerity and riots in Greece
the EU promises to act over Greek debts and tells Greece to make further spending cuts. The austerity plans spark strikes and riots in the streets
€22 Milliarden safety net
The eurozone and IMF agree a safety net of 22bn euros to help Greece - but no loans.
€30 Milliarden in emergency loans
eurozone countries agree to provide up to 30bn euros in emergency loans.
€110 Milliarden Rettungspaket für Griechenland
3 killed in protests in Greece
3 killed in protests in Greece - Protests in Athens against the government's austerity plans turn violent. Three people are killed when they become trapped in a bank set ablaze by demonstrators. Parliament passes the austerity package demanded under the EU-IMF deal
EU starts massive bailout fund
The EU agrees to set up a temporary $938-billion bailout fund, the European Financial Stability Facility, as fears mount about the economies of Portugal, Spain and even Italy.
€85 Milliarden Rettungspaket für Irland
France raises retirement age
Irish PM Brian Cowen resigns
(20 Januar) Amid a cabinet revolt and voter unrest over a new $20-billion austerity plan, Prime Minister Brian Cowen calls an election. He resigns two days later.
Spain raises retirement age
eurozone finance ministers set up a €500-Milliarden European Stability Mechanism
violent protests against austerity in Greece
Irish voters turf gov't
Enda Kenny becomes new PM
Portugal PM Jose Socrates resignes over austerity
€78 Milliarden Rettungspaket für Portugal
political change in Portugal
The ruling Socialists are bounced from office in Portugal's parliamentary elections. The Social Democratic Party, under new Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho, leads a centre-right coalition.
€109 Milliarden für zweites Rettungspaket für Griechenland
A second bailout for Greece is agreed. The eurozone agrees a comprehensive 109bn-euro ($155bn; £96.3bn) package designed to resolve the Greek crisis and prevent contagion among other European economies.
more austerity for Greece
Amid uproar over a $62.6-billion austerity package unveiled in April, Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou schedules a confidence vote, which he survives a week later.
200 injured in Greece
Greek lawmakers approve the April spending cuts, after two days of violent protests outside parliament. This clears the way for negotiations to begin on a new bailout package, which will be completed in October 2011.
EZB says it will buy Italian and Spanish gov't bonds
European Central Bank says it will buy Italian and Spanish government bonds to try to bring down their borrowing costs, as concern grows that the debt crisis may spread to the larger economies of Italy and Spain.
UK stimulus package and EZB emergency loans
the Bank of England injects a further £75bn into the UK economy through quantitative easing, while the European Central Bank unveils emergency loans measures to help banks.
€4 Milliarden Rettungspaket für frankobelgische Bank
European leaders reach a "three-pronged" agreement described as vital to solve the region's huge debt crisis.
investors take "haircut" on Greek bonds
EU leaders agree to force private investors to accept a 50 per cent "haircut" on Greek bonds and extend a new aid package to Greece worth $162.7 billion.
French President Nicolas Sarkozy unveils $83B austerity plan
Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi resigns
Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi fails to secure a majority in a parliamentary vote and must resign.
Former EU commissioner Mario Monti agrees to form a government of technocrats.
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou resigns
(31 Oktober) Greek PM calls referendum, later quits - Prime Minister George Papandreou calls a surprise referendum on the Oct. 27, 2011 bailout agreement. He backs down a week later and resigns. A national unity government is created to steer Greece through the crisis.
EZB cuts interest rate to record low
UK and Hungary refuse to agree to treaty changes
Attempts to get all 27 EU countries to agree to treaty changes fail due to the objections of the UK and Hungary. The new accord is to be agreed by March 2012, Mr Sarkozy says.
negotiations between Greece, private lenders and the Troika
1/2012 - 2/10/2012
Weeks of negotiations ensue between Greece, private lenders and the "troika" of the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the IMF, as Greece tries to get a debt write-off and make even more spending cuts to get its second bailout.
fiscal pact signed
The "fiscal pact" agreed by the EU in December is signed at the end of January. The UK abstains, as does the Czech Republic, but the other 25 members sign up to new rules that make it harder to break budget deficits.
Greece passes austerity bill
Eurozone jobless rate has hit a new high
European leaders sign "fiscal compact"
Twenty-five European leaders reach a deal to force the nations to keep their budget deficits in check. Britain and the Czech Republic say no to the treaty, which takes effect once 12 governments ratify it.
the eurozone finally backs a second Greek bailout of 130bn euros. IMF backing was also required and was later given.
socialist François Hollande elected in France
signaling a change in direction for France's economic party
Greeks vote for parties that reject the bailout agreement
a majority of Greeks vote in a general election for parties that reject the country's bailout agreement with the EU and International Monetary Fund.
Greek election stalemate
Greece holds elections on May 6. Anti-bailout party Syriza finishes a surprise second to the centre-right New Democracy, who cannot form a coalition. By May 15, other parties have failed as well and new elections are called.
Antonis Samaras becomes new Greek PM
pro-bailout center-right New Democracy party wins Greece vote, allaying fears the country was about to leave the eurozone. Antonis Samaras becomes PM
Cyprus requests financial aid from eurozone partners
Cyprus requests financial aid from its eurozone partners as it struggles to shore up its banks, which took heavy losses on Greek debt.
German high court backs bailout fund
Germany's high court rejects calls to block Europe's permanent rescue fund, the ESM, paving the way for its ratification by the country's president. Investors breathe a sigh of relief, since German participation is critical to the fund's chances.
Hundreds of thousands snarl the streets of several European capitals, at times clashing with riot police, as they demand that governments stop cutting benefits and create more jobs.
Greece avoids bankruptcy
International creditors agree to give Greece the $56.5 billion in aid it urgently needs.
€40 Milliarden Rettungspaket für Spanien
€10 Milliarden Rettungspaket für Zypern
Cyprus clinches a bailout deal with international creditors to prevent it becoming the first country to ditch the euro. In return for a $13-billion bailout from its European partners and the IMF, Cyprus agrees to drastically shrink its outsized banking sector, cut its budget, implement economic reforms and privatize state assets.
Europäische Gemeinschaften (EG)
3/25/1957 - 1992
EEC established in the Treaty of Rome signed 3/25/1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. EEC established 1/1/1958
Europäische Autogemeinschaft (EURATOM)
Europäische Gemeinschaft für Kohle und Stahl (EGKS)
Europäische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft (EWG)
Drei Säulen der Europäischen Union (EU)
1992 - 2007
1999 - 2000
Österreich, Belgien, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlände, Portugal, und Spanien
Staaten und Gebiete außerhalb der EU, die den Euro als Währung nutzen