Alexander II was the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland, his greatest act was the Emancipation of serfs in 1861. He came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War, his reign shows the pattern of reform that was left behind from his father and grandfather. The Crimean war had just begun after Russia tried to over take the Ottoman lands then Britian and France stepped in to help the Ottomans, The war ended with Russia on the loosing end and revealed that the country needed to be reformed. After receiving multiple complaints, Alexander II finally agreed to reform Russia, in 1861 he decreed the emancipation, the freedom brought problems but in the end the reform was a turning point for Russia.
Alexander II decided that after the Crimean War, he would start to make reforms. emancipation committees would be placed wherever serfdom.
United States Buys Alaska
Alexander II sold Alaska to the United States for $7 million dollars.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
1870 - 1964
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. As the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he took a senior role in orchestrating the October Revolution in 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government and the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world’s first constitutionally socialist state. He believed that only revolution could spark change. But in 1895, he was exiled.
Alexander II No More
After the reform, socialists went to work amoung pesants. Ultimately the caused anger amoung the radicals and on March 31, 1881, terrorists assaninated Alexander II.
A New Ruler: Alexander III
1881 - 1894
Alexander III, or Alexander the Peacemaker reigned as Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland. Alexander III changed some reforms that were created by his father, Alexander II. He wanted to remain true to Russian Orthodox.
The Last Emperor: Nicholas II
1884 - 1917
Nicholas was the last Emperor of Russia. While he was in rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War and Russia joined World War I, which killed 3.3 million Russians. He was abdicated in the February 1917 Revolutions, which led him and his family to imprisonment. As WWI continued, so did Nicholas’ reign. It slowly spiraled down, leading to his abdication.
After Alexander II was assaninated, his son Alexander III took over, he revived the strict methods of Nicholas I and wiped out liberals and revolutionaries and increased power in other areas. After Alexander III’s changes were made Russia finally entered the industrial age. But soon after political and social problems increased as a result of industrialization
1905 - 1908
Strikes multiplied, so Nicholas was forced to announce reforms which he then agreed to summon a duma, or an elected national legislator. No law went into affect until ran by the duma.
Bloody Sunday in Russia
A young orthodox priest organized a peaceful march and the tsar, fearing the marchers, fled the palace and called in soldiers who approached the people killed many by open gunfire.
300th Anniversary: Romanov Dynasty
Occurred February 21, 1913 -March 6, 1913. The major state jubilee was a public celebration which commemorated the reign of the House of Romanov in the Russian Empire
End of Tsarism
1914 - 1930
As Russia industrialized, a small middle class emerged. After 1905 Nicholas had failed to solve Russias problems, the duma had no real controlled power and moderates pressed for a change. Nicholas blocked attempts to limit his authority, while a revolution was ready to begin.
Tsar No Longer
1917 - 1918
Battlefield losses, combined with food and fuel shortages brought the tsar to an end. In St Petersburg people were rioting and by the recommendation of military, the tsar abdicated.
1918 - 1937
After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin tried to make peace with Germany and Russia then signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. Russia’s withdrawal affected allies and the central powers.