Led by Mao Zedong. Maoism, Stalinism, and original Marxism are each very different. The Chinese had a notion of continual revolutions; Mao tried to keep powerful our of power, continually.
The Great Leap Forward included communes- farms, self-reliance, and indigenous industry. However, not everyone could make steel. Millions of people actually starved to death (spurred the one child policy).
China engaged in policies of self-reliance and import-substitution industrialization because it didn't want to be involved in the global economy (Bretton Woods).
Mao Zedong decided that enemies were enemies of ideas; he killed almost all intelligence (hung university professors). No western culture was acceptable.
Henry Kissinger wanted to balance against Russia, so he went to China (secretly- he said he was sick in Pakistan). A realist, Kissinger aimed to balance the power of Russia and succeeded in calming some US-China relations.
Generational change is very powerful (death of a leader)
The "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping advocated "Socialism With a Chinese Face" and "Four Modernizations"- agriculture, science/technology, industry, and military. His theories were much more economically liberal; people began to be able to feed themselves.
this decision has embedded liberalism
Students wanted to get rid of corruption and have more say in university matters. They were shut down with tanks.
Signs on to its ideas of most favored nation status, etc.
Premier Wen Jiabao spoke of "China's Peaceful Rise", outlining:
-China's development depends upon and can contribute to peace
-China will employ peaceful means for its development
-Seeks to rely on its own resources and markets for development
-The rise will take several generations
-China will not seek hegemony or threaten any country.
The Bandung Conference in Indonesia initiated the non-aligned movement (India, Yugoslavia, China, Egypt, Indonesia) in order to state that they were not involved in the cold war. The movement never really came to fruition, however, and many LDCs were caught up in the bipolar struggle and suffered proxy wars on their soil (Nicaragua, Vietnam, Congo). Civil wars were engaged by larger powers.
The First UN Conference on Trade and Development was held in Geneva, now home of its permanent secretariat; the G-77 met to formulate strategies to negotiate with the rich and powerful states. Meeting every four years, its goals were to "maximize the trade, investment, and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis". (Raul Prabish was first president)
Demands for a New International Economic Order:
-more favorable terms of trade
-regulate and stabilize global primary commodity markets
-creation of a common fund
-regulate activities of TNCs
-preferential access to rich states' markets
-more aid and softer loans from IMF and WB
-more influence in IMF and WB
-international code of conduct from governing transfer of tech
This ended up being just a resolution; the rich did not back it and so it never got executed, which spurred a lot of negative UN bias. It ended being a "patchy, interest driven" country by country resolution.
LDCs went to the IMF and WB for aid- got aid with conditionalities
Globalizations ran rampant; a return to multilateralism commenced with higher membership in WTO/G-20. Economic success in the Global East; Rise of Brazil, Russia, India, and China
Led by Ayatollah Khomeni
The mujahideen fought against Soviet and DRA troops during the Soviet War in Afghanistan and were supported by United States' assistance. After the Soviet Union pulled out of the conflict in the late 1980s, the mujahideen fought each other for control in the subsequent Afghan Civil War.
-Intifada (uprising) as a recruiting tool
-Hamas was founded due to this conflict.
The first "president" of Chechnya who led resistance against Russia was killed by the Russians because he was giving info via cell phone- an example of how interceptable communication is.
The decline is most noticeable in Kabul, the capital, where women began joining the work force and adopting Western dress soon after the 2001 U.S.-led invasion that ousted the puritanical Taliban. Demand for burqas appears strongest in the provinces, where family pressures and the power of conservative warlords continue to enforce a stricter Islamic code.
Burqa sellers are selling Chinese-made burqas or are buying primary materials from the Chinese because it is cheaper.
"Freedom from ... the burqa does not mean the real liberalization of women. I should have rights according to the law. I should be equally treated in the main society," she told The Associated Press.
An internationally popular first lady could help soften China's sometimes abrasive international image and mark a victory in its so-far unsuccessful struggle to win over global public opinion.
In recent years, the wives of China's top officials have traditionally gone almost unseen at home and attracted little attention while accompanying their husbands on state visits abroad. That was in part a negative reaction to Mao Zedong's wife, Jiang Qing, who was widely despised and later imprisoned for her role as leader of the radical Gang of Four, which mercilessly persecuted political opponents during the chaotic 1966-76 Cultural Revolution.
"In her role as first lady on this visit abroad, Peng Liyuan is exhibiting China's soft power. As a singer and artist and a long-term advocate for poverty relief and other causes, Peng has an excellent public image."
Peng, 50, largely retired from public life after Xi was made China's leader-in-waiting in 2007, but in recent years has won new acclaim as an ambassador for the World Health Organization. Among the issues she has worked on are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS — diseases that still carry considerable social stigma in China.
Cyber attacks and cyber espionage have supplanted terrorism as the top threats to the United States in an annual "worldwide threat" assessment released on Tuesday by the U.S. intelligence community. These included high-profile issues such as North Korea's belligerence and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as well as regional and economic issues like continuing instability in the wake of the Arab Spring uprisings. Also covered was a potential transition in Cuba and what is predicted to be China's continuing domination of the world's supply of rare earth elements.
While Iran is improving its expertise in technologies, including uranium enrichment and ballistic missiles, that could be used in a nuclear weapons program, the intelligence community does not believe Iran's leadership has decided to build a nuclear weapon and does not know if or when it might do so. On Syria, U.S. spy agencies assessed that the erosion of the government of President Bashar al-Assad's ability to defend itself "is accelerating."
Moreover, the "core al Qaeda" group founded by the late Osama bin Laden and now led by his deputy, Ayman al Zawahiri, has been "degraded ... to a point that the group is probably unable to carry out complex, large-scale attacks in the west,"
The White House on Wednesday formally notified Congress of its plans to begin free trade talks with the 27-nation European Union, an effort to build on the world's largest trade and investment relationship to spur new economic growth.
Because tariffs between the transatlantic partners are relatively low, the hard work of the negotiations will be smoothing out regulatory differences that have stunted trade in areas such as agriculture, chemicals, pharmaceutical and autos.
New Chinese President Xi Jinping on Thursday pledged that his country will deepen cooperation with the United Nations. China has actively advocated and pursued multilateralism, upheld the purposes and principles of the U.N. Charter and safeguarded the authority of the United Nations and respected its roles in world affairs, Xi said. Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General, wished Xi success in his forthcoming visit to Russia and the three African nations of Tanzania, Congo and South Africa. He also expressed the hope that the BRICS summit in South Africa would produce positive results.
North Korea delivered a fresh round of rhetoric Thursday with claims it had "powerful striking means" on standby for a missile launch, while Seoul and Washington speculated that the country is preparing to test a medium-range missile during upcoming national celebrations.
Officials in Seoul and Washington say Pyongyang appears to be preparing to test-fire a medium-range missile designed to reach the U.S. territory of Guam in the Pacific Ocean.
Such a launch would violate U.N. Security Council resolutions. The missile that officials believe Pyongyang is readying has been dubbed the "Musudan" by foreign experts. The Korean War ended in 1953 with a truce, not a peace treaty, and the U.S. and North Korea do not have diplomatic relations. For weeks, the U.S. and South Korea have staged annual military drills meant to show the allies' military might. North Korea condemns the drills as rehearsal for an invasion.
Citing the tensions, North Korea on Monday pulled more than 50,000 workers from the Kaesong industrial park.
A flower show and art performances are scheduled over the next few days in the lead-up to the nations' biggest holiday, the April 15 birthday of North Korea founder Kim Il Sung
The former prime minister, who died Monday aged 87, rejected the label — "I owe nothing to women's lib," she once said — and she leaves a contested legacy for women. For some, she was an inspiration who showed that anything was possible. For others, she was an individualist who got to the top and pulled the ladder up behind her.
Her policies revitalized Britain's economy, but threw thousands of people out of work, and she tried to cut spending on childcare and other forms of social welfare, which she considered an unhealthy crutch.
"There were women who really admired her for having come from where she did and got where she did," Webster said. "But she didn't do anything that would have facilitated other women to follow in her footsteps."
The United States and Japan opened the door to new nuclear talks with North Korea. Kerry's message of openness to diplomacy was clear, however unlikely the chances appeared that North Korean leader Kim Jong Un's government would meet the American's conditions.
Tensions have run high on the Korean Peninsula for months, with North Korea testing a nuclear device and its intercontinental ballistic missile technology. While many threats have been dismissed as bluster, U.S. and South Korean say they believe the North in the coming days may test a mid-range missile designed to reach as far as Guam, the U.S. territory in the Pacific where the Pentagon is deploying a land-based missile-defense system. In China, he secured a public pledge from Beijing, the lone government with significant influence over North Korea, to rid the North of nuclear weapons.
So far, Republican lawmakers in the U.S. have largely backed the administration's efforts on North Korea.
But North Korea's Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of Korea said the government had no intention of talking with Seoul unless the South abandons its confrontational posture, as the North called it.
The Chinese are wary of US force in their backyard, but US forces are "not up to debate." Although missile-defense decisions could be reversed if the threat no longer existed.
Insurgents in Iraq deployed a series of car bombs as part of highly coordinated attacks that cut across a wide swath of the country Monday, killing at least 55 on the deadliest day in nearly a month.
The assault bore the hallmarks of a resurgent al-Qaida in Iraq and appeared aimed at sowing fear days before the first elections since U.S. troops withdrew.
Among the places where attacks erupted were the Sunni-dominated western Anbar province and Saddam Hussein's hometown of Tikrit, the ethnically contested oil-rich city of Kirkuk and towns in the predominantly Shiite south. The deadliest attacks hit Baghdad, where multiple car bombs and other explosions killed 25 people.
Al-Qaida in Iraq said Tuesday that it had joined forces with Jabhat al-Nusra or the Nusra Front- a rebel brigade fighting to topple President Bashar Assad in Syria's civil war.
Earlier this year, the U.S. announced a $60 million non-lethal assistance package for Syria that includes meals and medical supplies for the armed opposition. It was greeted unenthusiastically by some rebel leaders, who said it does far too little. The U.S. opposes directly arming Syrian opposition fighters, in part out of fear that the weapons could fall into the hands of Islamic extremists such as Jabhat al-Nusra.
The apparent tensions between Jabhat al-Nusra and al-Qaida in Iraq emerged on Wednesday, when Nusra leader Abu Mohammad al-Golani appeared to distance himself from claims the two groups had merged. Instead, he pledged allegiance to al-Qaida's leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri. Al-Golani said he was not consulted about the merger and only heard about it through the media. He did not deny the two groups had united, but remained vague, saying the announcement was premature and that his group will continue to use Jabhat al-Nusra as its name.