Old Testament Prophets

Kings of Israel

Reign of Jeroboam II

796 B.C. - 746 B.C.

Hosea 1:1 ties the ministry of Hosea to the reign of the Israelite king, Jeroboam II.

Kings of Assyria

Reign of Ashurbanipal

668 B.C. - 633 B.C.

Kings of Judah

Reign of Azariah (Uzziah)

783 B.C. - 742 B.C.

Jotham becomes Co-Regent with Uzziah

750 B.C.

Reign of Jotham

742 B.C. - 735 B.C.

Reign of Ahaz

735 B.C. - 715 B.C.

Israel Falls to Assyria - Samaria Destroyed

722 B.C.

Reign of Hezekiah

715 B.C. - 686 B.C.

Hezekiah reigned until 687/686 B.C.

Reign of Manasseh

687 B.C. - 642 B.C.

Death of Hezekiah

686 B.C.

Hezekiah died sometime between 687 and 686.

Reign of Josiah

640 B.C. - 609 B.C.

King Josiah Killed by Egyptians near Har Meggido

609 B.C.

Jehoiakin Dies (Assassinated?)

598 B.C.

Jehoiakim, King of Judah Rebels against Babylon

598 B.C.

Jehoiachin Crowned King

597 B.C.

Young son of Jehoiakim takes the throne, nearly immediately acquiesces to the Babylonians, and is carried away with 10,000 of his subjects into captivity.

Kings of Babylon

Kings of Persia

Cyrus Conquers Babylon

539 B.C.

Daniel 5

Prophets of Yahweh

Historical Superscription of Amos

786 B.C. - 746 B.C.

Historical Superscription of Hosea

786 B.C. - 746 B.C.

Ministry of Hosea (Approximate)

750 B.C. - 715 B.C.

Hosea 1:1 mentions the Judahite kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah whose reigns were contemporaneous to the ministry of Hosea.

Historical Superscription of Micah

750 B.C. - 687 B.C.

Zephaniah's Father Born?

685 B.C.

Prophecy of Nahum*

663 B.C. - 612 B.C.

*Approximate dates based upon Nahum's mention of the destruction of Thebes, Egypt by the Assyrians as a past event (663 B.C.) and the destruction of Nineveh by the Babylonians (612 B.C.) as a future event.

Historical Superscription of Zephaniah

640 B.C. - 609 B.C.

Beginning of the Book of Daniel Written

605 B.C.

Daniel 1:1 - During the 3rd year of the reign of Jehoiakim

Authorship of Daniel Based upon Opening and Closing Superscriptions

605 B.C. - 537 B.C.

Writing of Habakkuk (Approximate)

597 B.C. - 586 B.C.

Ezekiel's Ministry

597 B.C. - 586 B.C.

It makes sense that the prophetic ministry of Ezekiel would have taken place after he was called by Yahweh. What is specifically known however, is that he prophesied sometime between the first exile of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem.

Ezekiel Called by Yahweh to Prophesy

593 B.C.

Ezekiel 1:2

Final Historical Superscription in Daniel

537 B.C.

The last historical reference in the book of Daniel mentions the third year of the reign of King Cyrus of Persia.

Historical Superscription of Haggai

520 B.C.

Historical Superscription of Zechariah

520 B.C.

Major Historical Events

First Exile of Judah in Babylon

597 B.C.

Jerusalem and the Temple of YHWH Destroyed by Babylon

587 B.C - 586 B.C.

The City was utterly destroyed on 9 Av 586 B.C. Ezekiel was in captivity in Babylon when the city fell.

It is poignant that Jerusalem was again decimated on 9 Av A.D. 70 by the Romans.

Biblical References

Ezekiel 8-11

592 B.C.

The events of these chapters take place during 592 B.C.

Historical Events

Phoenicians (Tyre) Colonize Carthage, North Africa

815 B.C. - 814 B.C.

By the close of the 9th century, Tyre dominated military and commercial shipping in the Mediterranean Sea.

Assyria Defeats Israel-Syrian Alliance in the Syro-Ephraimite War

734 B.C.

Assyria Unsuccessfully Besieges Jerusalem

701 B.C.

Sennacherib of Assyria Drives Cushites out of Israel and into Egypt

701 B.C.

Assyria Destroys Thebes, Egypt

663 B.C.

Nahum 3:8

Babylon Destroys Nineveh

612 B.C.

Nebuchadnezzar Defeats Egyptians at Carchemish

605 B.C.

Alexander the Great Destroys Tyre

332 B.C.

As prophesied centuries earlier in Ezekiel 26:3-5.

Greek History

Alexander the Great Born

356 B.C.

Alexander the Great Dies

323 B.C.

Antiochus iV "Epiphanes" Reigns over Selucid Kingdom (Including Palestine)

175 B.C. - 163 B.C.

Daniel 8 9-14

Epiphanes means "The visible god" - a reference to the Greek god, Jupiter. He was frequently referred however, as "Epimanes", or "Madman".

Natural History

Major Earthquake at Hazor*

760 B.C.

*Excavations at Hazor indicate that a sizable earthquake occurred around 760 B.C. This may be the earthquake Amos refers to, but additional archaeological corroboration is probably needed before we can be certain. - J. Daniel Hays, The Message of the Prophets, 287.

Micah 3:12 Quoted in Defense of the Prophet Jeremiah*

609 B.C.

Jeremiah 26:17-19

Cushite History

Assyrian/Cushite War

715 B.C. - 687 B.C.

"Also, note that Hezekiah was the king during the great Assyrian/Cushite collision (715-687 BC) , the events of which provide mush of the background for the oracle in Zephaniah 2:1 - 3:13)." - J. Daniel Hays, The Message of the Prophets, 334.

Cush Rules Egypt

710 B.C. - 663 B.C.