Fascism and Totalism

Benito Mussolini

Fascio di Combattimento

1919

In 1919, Mussolini created a new political group, the Fascio di Combattimento, or League of Combat.

First European Fascist movement

1920

In the early 1920s, Benito Mussolini established the first European Fascist movement in Italy.

Joseph Stalin

Trotsky and Stalin

1924

In 1924, Trotsky held the post of commissar of war, while Stalin was the general secretary for the party.

Stalin's Mania

1930

In the 1930's, Stalin's mania for power also led him to purge, or remove, all opponents--or imagined opponents--from Soviet life.

Francisco Franco

General Franco

1936

Led by General Francisco Franco, Spanish military forces revolted against the democratic government in 1936.

Franco's Forces

1939

The Spanish Civil War came to an end when Franco's forces captured Madrid in 1939.

Lenin

USSR

1922

In 1922, Lenin and the communists formally created a new state called the Union of Societ Socialist republics, which is also known as the USSR, or as the Soviet Union.

Lenin's Death

1924

Lenin died in 1924.

Europe

Russia's Steel Increase

1928 - 1937

Between 1928 and 1937, during the first two Five-Year-Plans, steel production in Russia increased from 4 million to 18 million tons per year.

Russia's Collectivization

1930

By 1930, 10 million peasant households had been collectivized, (eliminated).

Democratic States

1939

By 1939, France and Great Britain were the only two major European states that remained democratic.

Totalism

Hitlers Totalitarian State

1933

By the end of the summer of 1933, only seven months after being appointed chancellor, Hitler had established the basis for a totalitarian state.

Socialism

Squadristi

1920

In 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands of black-shirted, armed Fascists called squadristi or Blackshirts

OVRA

1926

In 1926, the Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established a secret police, known as the OVRA.