Mussolini created a new political group, the Fascio di Combattimento, or League of Combat. The term fascist is derived from the name.
Mussolini formed bands of black shirted, armed fascists called squadristi or Blackshirts. These bands attacked socialist offices and nespapers.
Early 1920's Benito Mussolini established the first European Fascist movement in Italy.
Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march on Rome if they were not given power.
By this time Mussolini's movement was growing quickly. The middle class fear of socialism, communism and disorder made the Fascists increasingly attractive to many people
The fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established a secret police, known as the OVRA.
By 1939 only two major European states: France and great Britain remained democratic. Italy, The Soviet union, Germany, and the many other European states adopted dictatorial regimes.
Fascist youth groups included about 66% of the population between ages 8 and 18. Members of such groups wore military style uniforms and practiced military drills. Mussolini hoped that youth groups would create a nation of Italians who were fit, disciplined, and war-loving.
As many as 5 million lives were lost. With agriculture disaster came industrial collapse.
Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss. He abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP)
Lenin and the Communists formally created a new state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which is also known as the USSR or as the Soviet Union.
Trotsky held the post of commissar of war, while Stalin was the general secretary for the party.
Lenin died in 1924. Immediately a power struggle began among the seven members of the Politburo.
Thousands of officials that Stalin appointed supported him when he made his bid for power. By 1929, Stalin was able to eliminate any Bolsheviks from the revolutionary era from the Politburo and create a dictatorship.
Parliamentary systems were adopted in Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia (known until 1929 as the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) In most of these countries, however, authoritarian regimes took power.
Stalin's mania for power led him to purge, or remove, all opponents-or imagined opponent- from the Soviet Life. His actions are referred to as the Great Purge. First to be removed were the Old Bolsheviks, anyone who had been active in the early years of the movement.
Most Old Bolsheviks were put on trial and condemned to death due to Stalin's Great Purge.
In Spain political democracy failed to survive. led by general Francisco Franco, Spanish military forces revolted against the democratic government in 1936. A bloody civil war then began.
The Spanish Civil War came to an end when Franco/s forces captured Madrid in 1939. Franco then established a dictatorship that favored large landowners, business people, and the Catholic Clergy.