Unit 6: An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire
Coal Production in England reaches 2.5 million tons
Coal Production in England reaches 15 million tons
Emancipation of serfs in Russia
Policy led by Tsar Alexander II. Its purpose was to prevent a revolt led by the serfs, but led to the start of the civil war in Russia.
Unit 7: Contemporary Global Realignments
US has over 360K soldiers in Vietnam
Russia's First Free Election
AP WORLD HISTORY EXAM
05/16/2013 8:00 AM
GOOD LUCK EVERYBODY!
Indus River Valley
3300 BC - 750 BC
One of the first river valley civilizations. Characterized by agricultural success, specialization of labor, centralized government, writing , and shared views.
Egypt's New Kingdom
1576 BC - 1085 BC
First female pharaoh Hatsheput
1500 BC - 1046 BC
First organized dynasty in China. Very ethnocentric, isolated except for trade with Mesopotamia
1300 BC - 400 BC
Built square pyramids for religious ceremonies. Isolated from other civilizations, developed ball games and rubber. Had no middle class.
1029 BC - 258 BC
First dynasty after the warring states period. Characterized by: legalism, warring states era, and mandate of heaven.
800 BC - 146 BC
Expansive conquest under Alexander the Great. Stretched from Greece all the way to India. Characterized by: expansive conquest, military supremacy, later democracy, city states unified by war.
550 BC - 300 BC
Spanned Mediterranean coast to West coast of India and Black Sea to Red Sea. Ruled by Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great.
Holy Roman Empire
500 BC - 500 AD
Largest and most powerful empire at the time. Characterized by: philosophical thinkers, republic, vast economic activity, military supremacy, modern day code of law.
From 500 BC to 49 BC, the country was a "republic" with the patricians making all of the decisions, not the citizens. Created the twelve tables law code.
Warring States Era
403 BC - 321 BC
Era of political chaos in China. Brought about Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism thought processes. China's feudal era.
322 BC - 185 BC
Created by Alexander the Great, but left before ruling it. Chandragupta Maura came and ruled the united lands. Characterized by: Unified northern India, wealthy empire, bureaucracy, the first "motels" along trade routes, Asoka converts to Buddhism.
221 BC - 202 BC
The unification of modern day China. Characterized by: legalism, land redistribution, law code, ruled by Qin Shi Huangdi, terra cotta army, public work projects.
Early Han Dynasty
202 BC - 9 AD
Founded by Liu Bang. Longest and largest dynasty in Chinese history. Monopolized iron, salt, and liquor. Golden age during Han Wudi.
57 BC - 950 AD
Dynasty that tried to be similar to China in acomplishements and culture. Didn't have a merit base government system. Created the first typewriter.
Roman Empire Divided
Diocletian officially divides thew roman empire into two parts, The eastern part (Byzantine Empire) and the western part.
300 AD - 710 AD
Feudal period in Japan. Characterized by: increasing influence from China, including Confucianism, writing system (kanji), Zen Buddhism.
320 AD - 563 AD
Ruled by Chandra Gupta. Characterized by: smaller than Mauryan dynasty, Hinduism is main religion, astronomy, c-section, plastic surgery, golden age of India, declines when invaded by the Huns.
500 AD - 1453 AD
Eastern part of Roman empire after its division. Characterized by: ruled by Justinian, christian empire, military might, Greek fire, buffer to western Europe, economic center, "middle man" of trade, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.
500 AD - 1250 AD
Time of feudalism in Western Europe after fall of Roman empire. Characterized by: not much learning, advancement, or inventions, missionaries spread Christianity
589 AD - 618 AD
Reunification of China after Han Dynasty. Characterized by: re-emergence of scholar gentry, powerful peasant army, legal code, building of Grand Canal to connect north and south China
618 AD - 907 AD
Largest empire to date in China. Characterized by: strong centralized government, Confucian, graduated income tax, legal rights and divorce, control of sea trade, Buddhism, "Industrial Revolution"
749 AD - 1156 AD
Continuation of feudalism in Japan. Characterized by: moving away from Chinese influence, establishment of Shintoism, aristocratic rule, ends due to rise of military class.
750 AD - 1076 AD
2nd Sudanic emprie. Characterized by: teritorial expansion, trade, urbanizatiion, conversionn to Islam by 10th centuries, nomadic raids weakened the empire.
Great Zimbabwe dominates Central Africa.
800 AD - 1600 AD
Sub saharan empire that dominatede trade and military conquests. Charcterized by: massive stone enclosures, suppied gold to swahili people, declined due to internal division.
960 AD - 1127 AD
Prosperous time in postclassical China. Characterized by: allocation of funds to education rather than military, growth of agriculture, Neo-Confucianism, encouragement of patriarchal society and footbinding, revival of Chinese culture, closest society to Industrial Revolution
1060 AD - 1492 AD
Spaniards attempting to regain independence from Umayyad Muslims that had settled in the Iberian Peninsula.
1200 AD - 1400 AD
Nomadic peoples formed the largest empire in world history united by Genghis Khan. Divided into four khanates in 1294. Characterized by: no centralized government, time of trade prosperity, excellent cavalry, assimilation of nomads into surrounding cultures.
1230 AD - 1600 AD
East coast sudanic empire. Charterized by: slave trade, organized society based on clans, polagamy, Mansa Musa.
1279 AD - 1368 AD
Mongol empire in China. Characterized by: reformed social hierarchy with Chinese on bottom, ended Confucian exam system, increased trade, foreign Islamic administrators.
1299 AD - 1923 AD
Islamic empire in the Middle East and Central Asia. Istanbul is capital. Characterized by: control of Mediterranean trade, superior technology, religious tolerance, Ghazi and Janissary fighters.
Aztecs found capital of Lake Tenochtitlan
Said to be where an eagle was grasping a snake while perched on a cactus.
1340 AD - 1591 AD
3rd sudanic empire. Characterized by: largest african empire, center around muslim faith, founded by Sunni Ali, expanded by Askia, conquered by Morracans.
1368 AD - 1644 AD
The Ming replaces the Yuan dynasty, which is when the Mongols fell and it includes the voyages of Zheng He.
1427 AD - 1521 AD
Empire situated in south America on lake Titicaca. Charcterized by: overthrown Inca, Olmecs, Mayans, human sacrifice, traditinal religion, paid tributes.
1482 AD - 1530 AD
Empire in India founded by Babur. Characterized by: warrior aristocracy, weak bureacracy, better treatment of women, establishment of Sikhism as blend of Hindu and Muslim, religious tolerance.
1600 AD - 1868 AD
End of feudalism in Japan. Characterized by: military government, time of peace and stability, figurehead emperor, samurai lose power, building Japanese cultural identiy.
1644 AD - 1914 AD
The Qing dynasty replaces the Ming Dynasty.
1922 AD - 1991 AD
551 BC - 479 BC
Wrote a book on Analects that stressed the importance of Li, and Ren. Also created the relationships of filial piety. Inspired civil service exams, and still important in modern day culture.
521 BC - 486 BC
First ruler of the Persian Empire. Characterized by: balance between centralized rule and local government, royal road, Persian wars, coining of money.
Alexander the Great
332 BC - 323 BC
Leader of the Macedonia Empire. Characterized by: military supremacy (phalanx), expansive conquest, unification of India, son of Philip II, empire divided after his death and decline.
Asoka the Great
262 BC - 232 BC
Golden age of the Mauryan Empire. Characterized by: elephants in warfare, conversion to Buddhism after battle of Kalinga, centralized bureaucracy, pillars of Asoka, built roads to promote trade, decline of empire after death.
Qin Shi Hungdi
259 BC - 210 BC
Proclaimed himself first emperor of China. Characterized by: centralized power, land reforms, public service projects (great wall ), "kill thousands to save millions."
202 BC - 195 BC
Founder of Early Han Dynasty. Created the longest dynasty in Chinese history. Characterized by: conquest of Vietnam, Korea, and central Asia, tribute system, monopolization of iron salt, and liquor, silk roads, trade with roman empire.
141 BC - 87 BC
Ruled the Han Dynasty. Characterized by: centralizing government, expanding empire, Confucian civil service exams, increasing military, inventions of silk, compass, rudder, water mill, and paper.
319 AD - 335 AD
Ruler of the Gupta dynasty. Created the golden age of India with many advancements in technology and learning.
527 AD - 565 AD
Ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Characterized by: code of law, whore wife, creation of an economic superpower, thriving silk industry, Hagia Sophia.
1162 AD - 1227 AD
Leader of Mongols. Unified them by breaking up tribal affiliations in 1206, creates empire in 25 years through merit and loyalty.
1245 AD - 1324 AD
Italian explorer who explored most of the world know at that time. Spent excessive time in Khublai Khans empire and court.
1280 AD - 1337 AD
Leader of the Mail empire. Charaterized by expanisve wealth, pilgramedge to Mecca.
1304 AD - 1369 AD
Berber explorer who explored the entire Islamic world and made multiple hajj's. Significant because Dar-al-Islam afforded him the opportunity to travel throught the entire region with ease.
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394 AD - 1460 AD
Ruler, not an exlorer. Taught many famous exploreers.
1451 AD - 1500 AD
A knight of the round table, sailing master, from Portugal.
1483 AD - 1546 AD
German Monk whose 95 Theses protesting the Roman Catholic Church gained popularity (due to the printing press), starting the Protestant Reformation.
1492 AD - 1500 AD
Spanish explorer who took 4 voyages to the New World, claiming it for Spain.
1519 AD - 1522 AD
Portuguese explorer. The voyage of Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, sailing first around Africa, across the Indian Ocean, to the Philippines (where he died), and his crew continued back to Portugal.
Vasco da Gama
1519 AD - 1524 AD
Greatest portugese explorer, found sea route to Indian port of Calcut.
Ivan the Terrible
1533 AD - 1584 AD
Leader of Russia after Ivan the Great, increased the power of the tsar, expanded Russia into th elargest country in the world.
1543 AD - 1616 AD
Founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan. Reunified Japan after Feudal period.
Jusuits return under matteo Ricci
1552 AD - 1610 AD
1556 AD - 1605 AD
Leader of Mughal Empire, westernized military using gunpowder and Turkish military skills, religiously tolerant.
1564 AD - 1642 AD
Played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
1643 AD - 1715 AD
French monarch who was best known for constructing the Palace at Versailles.
1661 AD - 1722 AD
Peter I (The Great)
1682 AD - 1725 AD
Ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire.
1689 AD - 1755 AD
Enlightenment thinker who thought of separation of government, influencing the United States government today (judicial, executive, legislative).
1694 AD - 1778 AD
Enlightenment thinker, "friend" of King of Prussia, who advocated tolerance of religion, race, sexual orientation, gender, etc.
1723 AD - 1790 AD
Father of Capitalism.
1736 AD - 1795 AD
1753 AD - 1811 AD
Leads independence movement for Mexico by rallying peasants against the peninsulares.
King Louis XVI
1754 AD - 1793 AD
Absolute ruler in France that was thrown from power by the National Convention during the French Revolution.
1758 AD - 1794 AD
Leader of radical Jacobins in France after fall of absolute monarch. Attacked Catholicism and called for universal adult male suffrage.
1759 AD - 1797 AD
Enlightenment thinker who would champion women's rights in salons.
Catherine II (The Great)
1762 AD - 1796 AD
Inspired by Enlightenment ideals and based her society off of them. She westernized Russia and gave too much power to the owners of the serfs which resulted in the end of her reign.
Captain James Cook
1768 AD - 1779 AD
British explorer who discovered oceanic islands including Australia, New Zealand, Australia, and New Caledonia.
1769 AD - 1821 AD
Declares himself emperor of France in 1799. Attempts to expand France's borders, but fails when he invades Russia during the winter.
1783 AD - 1830 AD
Led independence movements for many South American countries by rallying peasants against the Spanish. His vision was to make a United States of South America and help indigenous people gain rights.
Empress Dowager Cixi
1835 AD - 1908 AD
Leader of the Boxer Rebellion in China, squashed the self-strengthening movement by diverting funds.
1864 AD - 1936 AD
Short story author. Originated the White Man's Burden, a theory in which validated the U.S's involvement in foreign affairs with South America
1866 AD - 1925 AD
Yatsen as a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China").
Empror Mutushito takes power
Sets goals of prosperity and strength for Japan, "rich country, strong army." Resolved to learn western technology, wanted to combine western advances with eastern values.
1869 AD - 1948 AD
was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world.
1869 AD - 1984 AD
Peaceful rebellion to British imperialism in India and Hindu/Muslim tension. Great Salt march, fasting, civil disobedience, non-cooperation movement. Assassinated by Hindu extremest who believed he showed too much sympathy to the Muslims
1870 AD - 1924 AD
Bolshevik leader, overthrew Romanofs. Created new economic policy for Russia, creates limited communist reforms in order to promote agricultural and industrial development. Dies in 1924 and succeed by Stalin.
George C. Marshall
1880 AD - 1989 AD
was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Gained the allied victory in WW2.
1883 AD - 1945 AD
Italian fascist leader. Father of fascism, leader during WWI, didn't like Hitler but realized potential as ally.
1893 AD - 1976 AD
was a Chinese communist revolutionary, politician and socio-political theorist. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death.
1901 AD - 1989 AD
Was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989.
1918 AD - 1981 AD
League Of Nations
1920 AD - 1945 AD
was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
1925 AD - 1953 AD
Takes over after Lenin, creates the communist state envisioned by the Bolsheviks, eliminates private firms for government controlled business. Kills millions in his reforms. Establishes the USSR. Five year plans and great purge to try and increase industrialization and purify the government.
1925 AD - 1931 AD
Succeeds Sun Yatsen as leader of Kuomintang Communist China
1926 AD - Present
Castro is a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008.
1928 AD - 1967 AD
Revolutionary who helped incite revolutions throughout Latin America. Supported Castro in Cuba. Personal favorite of Mr. Light.
1929 AD - 1968 AD
Led Civil Right's Movement in US.
1931 AD - 2007 AD
1933 AD - 1945 AD
Elected chancellor of Germany. Promised the people that Germany would reclaim its former glory as super power. Broke rules set at treaty of Versailles. Leader of the Nazi part, leader of one of the largest genocides in history, committed suicide to evade capture.
The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
Communists lead by Mao Zedong used guerrilla warfare against to in a war between the communist party and the nationalist party. Eventually the communists win creating the People's Republic of China.
Montgomery bus boycott
1994 AD - 1999 AD
1994 - 1999 AD were the years Mandela was President.
500 BC - 479 BC
War between the Persian state and the city states of the Hellenistic empire.The Persian army was defeated by the Athenian city state swell as the Spartan city state.
431 BC - 404 BC
War between the city states of Athens and Sparta. Hurt the empire and caused eventual downfall. Sparta beats Athens.
Battle of Kalinga
262 BC - 261 BC
Led by Ashoka, in Southern India. Slaughter causes him to convert to Buddhism.
Battle of Kalinga
262 BC - 261 BC
War between the state of Kalinga and the Mauryan empire. After seeing the death and destruction, Asoka converts to Buddhism and so does the majority of his empire.
1095 AD - 1291 AD
Religious fighting between Christians and Muslims. Muslim use of gunpowder overpowered the Western European swords. Had little effect on the Muslim world, but took a toll on Europe by killing good amount of population.
1180 AD - 1185 AD
Conflict between Taira and Minamoto clans during late-Heian Period in Japan. Resulted in fall of Taira clan and establishment of Kamakura shogunate.
Uprising of the peasants against the samurai, destroying the Japanese countryside. Results in the establishment of the "bafuku", or military government, under the Minamoto family.
Hundred Years War
1337 AD - 1453 AD
War between England and France. England is victorious, shows western europe the muslim technology. Ends feudalism in England.
Hernan Cortez conquers the Aztecs
Aided due to superior weaponry, infectious diseases, and superior metallurgy (steel).
Francisco Pizzaro conquers the Incas
Thirty Years' War
1618 AD - 1645 AD
Not actually thirty years in duration. Conflict started when the Holy Roman Emperor attempted to forcibly bring back his subjects into the Church, from Protestantism. The main battleground was present-day Germany, killing around 1/3 of its population.
7 Years' War
1756 AD - 1763 AD
War between England and France over colonial rivalries in the New World. Also known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre. English victory set them up for world hegemony.
1773 AD - 1774 AD
The principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in Russia after Catherine II seized power in 1762.
Battle of Saratoga
The British defeated by colonists that serves as a wake up call in the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle of the American Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille
Third estate in France attempts to gain ammunition from a prison controlled by the government.
War of 1812
1812 AD - 1815 AD
Britain tries to stop trade between France and America, but gradually delay their efforts in order to avoid another detrimental war.
1839 AD - 1860 AD
British monopolized trade on opium from India and sold extensively to China. The wars consisted of the Chinese resisting trading in opium, while the British continued to exert their dominance.
1846 AD - 1848 AD
US gains Texas in the Treaty of Guadalupe (1848).
1850 AD - 1864 AD
Civil war in China in which Hong Xiuquan, a Christian, calls for the destruction of the Qing dynasty. He is ultimately defeated by European weaponry when the British and French aid the Qing.
1851 AD - 1868 AD
Attempt by Chinese to topple the Qing dynasty.
1853 AD - 1856 AD
Russia vs. the Ottomans over control of land. France and British side with Russia and help them to defeat the Ottomans, but Russian weakness in technology was exposed. The first modern war involving communication systems and electricity.
1857 AD - 1858 AD
Revolt of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the British armies in India over the use of pork and beef fat on the rifle cartridges. Results in 60 soldiers and 120 civilians murdered in massacre. British retaliate with 375 women and children being murdered in the soldiers town, the British then take control and have a show trail with the 40 revolutionaries.
American Civil War
1861 AD - 1865 AD
Southern states withdraw from the Union to form the Confederacy. South fights for ability to secede and continue the practice of slavery. The north ultimately wins and slavery is abolished by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 by the Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Gettysburg
Battle during American Civil War. Defeat of greatest general in the South, Robert E. Lee. Turns the tide against the South in favor of the North.
1868 AD - 1912 AD
Brief civil war between imperial and Tokugawa Japan. Results in Emperor Mutsuhito taking power, conscripted army takes over for samurai.
1894 AD - 1895 AD
Japan vs. Qing dynasty in a battle for land. Japanese win due to modernized military and serves as a wake-up call to China to start industrializing. Opens the world's eyes up to increasing Japanese power.
1899 AD - 1901 AD
A movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Characterized by: support from empress Cixi, opposition to western influence, belief that guns wouldn't hurt them, besiege US Embassy in 1900, crushed by coalition of European forces.
1899 AD - 1901 AD
Formed by Empress Cixi and declared war on foreign powers in an attempt to push out their influence on China. Ultimately unsuccessful due to insufficient weapons.
1899 AD - 1902 AD
War between dutch settlers in south Africa and the British. British take land in 1806 and give land to the Afrikaners to settle on. The British find gold on the land and want it back, British win war and turn the Afrikaners into slaves to mind the gold.
1904 AD - 1905 AD
War between Japan and Russia. Japan wins due to superior military technology. Russia is embarrassed and realizes they need to modernize.
During a peaceful rebellion against the Tsar military officials massacred 40 people in the crowd after firing in it to make them disperse.
World War I
1914 AD - 1918 AD
Global conflict that was started with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist. Pulled other nations into the conflict through Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism. Two sides Allied powers (R+E+F) and Central powers (T+A+G). Italy switches sides.
US Enter WWI
US Enter after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese. Join the allied powers after Russia leaves. Major force for the Allied powers, bring sift end to war.
May 4th Movement
Nationalist rally against the treaty of Versailles.
Probably the most fateful and petrifying day in the History of Indian Freedom Movement is the day of the Amritsar Massacre.
Civil Disobedience Movement
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. This movement was led by Gandhi when the British was in control of India.
World War II
1931 AD - 1945 AD
WW2 was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
1937 AD - 2006 AD
President of Iraq and brought the party to power in Iraq.
Rape of Najing
The massacre and atrocities commited by the Japanese imperial army when they conquered Nanjing.
Ivasion of Poland
It was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
Hitler invades USSR
The destruction of the Soviet Union by military force, the permanent elimination of the perceived Communist threat to Germany.
Was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor.
Soviets regroup and attack Hitler
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union.
The Allies carried out a massive deception operation intended to make the Germans think the main invasion target was Pas-de-Calais (the narrowest point between Britain and France) rather than Normandy.
was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
1945 AD - 1991 AD
was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.
135,000 germans killed in shelters in dresden
was an attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, that took place in the final months of the Second World War in the European Theatre.
Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. The three powers were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, and, later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.
1948 AD - 1994 AD
was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments.
1950 AD - 1953 AD
Proxy war of the Cold War against the communist N and democratic S. Nothing is accomplished, and the country remains divided by the 38th parallel.
1955 AD - 1975 AD
Proxy war of the Cold War between a communist North (led by Ho Chi Minh) and a democratic South. The North eventually wins out and unites Vietnam under communism after the US withdraws.
1957 AD - 1975 AD
Competition between the Soviet Union and US for scientific advancement into space.
500K French Soldiers in Algerian War
Tonkin Gulf Attack
USS Maddox sunk = Gives US reason to enter Vietnam War. Some say the US planned this. Who knows?
Arabs don't like Jewish Palestine. 6-day war.
USSR crushes anticommunist movement.
War in Afghanistan
1978 AD - 1989 AD
Proxy war of the Cold War. US helps Islamic mujahideen defeat Soviets in the area.
1980 AD - 1988 AD
was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Baathist Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war after the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Fall of the Berlin wall
Berlin wall separated East, and West Germany.
Hinduism is Born
Oldest organized religion. Believed to have started sometime in this era. Characterized by: one god with many different forms, rigid caste system, reincarnation and multiple lives needed to reach nirvana.
Birth of Judaism
Birth of the first Abrahamic religion.
Zoroastrianism is Born
First Monotheistic Religion. Practiced in the Persian empires. Moving away from animism to physical deities.
Buddhism is Born
Siddhartha, a Brahman who was unhappy with the caste system was under house arrest. He left, and meditated until he reached enlightenment. Taught the four Nobel truths, don't have a centralized "God," they believe everyone can achieve enlightenment in one lifetime.
586 BC - 538 BC
A time period when the Jews were forced out of their homes and native lands and had to find new places to live.
Birth of Christianity
Started by Jesus of Nazareth, spreads over Roman Roads, then Silk Roads.
Christianity becomes official religion of Europe
Becomes official religion of Byzantine empire, the main superpower in Europe at the time.
Islam is Born
Third and final Abrahamic religion. Five pillars of Islam must be adheared to by all Muslims. Has both enthinc and universalizing sects. Third Abrahamic Religion. Believe that Jesus is Prophet and that Muhammad is their savior. Youngest religion.
Split between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism Christianity over whether to use Jesus as an idol in the government. Catholics wanted government integrated into religion and orthodox wanted separation of church and state.
1368 AD - 1644 AD
Chinese dynasty following Yuan dynasty. Characterized by: no outside influence, great wall of China, "brilliant" dynasty, enuchs, fell to mancurian Qing dynasty.
1438 AD - 1533 AD
Andes mountains in South America. Charterized by: short height, terrace farming, Mita, paved roads, Quipu.
Ivan the Great
1440 AD - 1505 AD
Ruler of Russia that replaced Golden Horde, westernized Russia, used loyalties to Orthodox Church.
1469 AD - 1539 AD
Founder of the religion of Sikhism, a blend between Hinduism and Islam.
1481 AD - 1492 AD
Attempt to rid the Iberian peninsula from Jewish and Islamic influence, which also extended to Protestantism as well.
Triangular Slave Trade
1500 AD - 1800 AD
Trade between Europe, Africa and the New World. Trading firearms and maunfactured goods to Africa for slaves and going to the New World for raw materials.
1517 - 1618
Movement away from the Roman Catholic Church. Started by Martin Luther, and culminating in the Thirty Years' War.
Council of Trent
1545 AD - 1563 AD
A series of meetings within the Roman Catholic Church to revise doctrines in response to Protestantism.
1588 AD - 1679 AD
Enlightenment thinker who wrote "Leviathan", stating that there is a social contract between ruler and subjects, and that control must be absolute.
1632 AD - 1704 AD
Enlightenment thinker who believed that mind was a "blank slate", and influenced the United States Declaration of Independence with his idea of basic human rights.
1642 AD - 1727 AD
Was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
1680 AD - 1770 AD
The age of learning and rebirth.
1700 AD - 1800 AD
Intellectual movement away from the Church, and to reform society based on reason. It challenged ideas grounded in faith and sought to advance knowledge through the Scientific Method, following the Scientific Revolution.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712 AD - 1788 AD
Enlightenment thinker. Ideas of individual freedoms under rule influenced the French Revolution.
Tokugawa reform of Japan
1841 AD - 1843 AD
Tries to end feudalism, abolishes merchant guilds, compelled peasants to return t cultivating rice, ultimately ineffective reforms.
Mathew Perry Opens Port of Tokyo
USA Naval officer sails to Japan with gunships and forces open the port of Edo (Tokyo), causes a revolt against the Shogun and and rally around the emperor in Kyoto.
Hundred Days Reform
1889 AD - 1990 AD
Qing Dynasty. An attempt by the government to modernize like western Europe after the exclusion from the Ming dynasty. Fails due to Empress Cixi's lack of support.
Panama Canal Project
1904 AD - 1914 AD
United States receives permission to build a canal after helping to gain Panama's freedom from Columbia. America mostly takes advantage of Panama and exploits them through trade.
Republic of China
1912 AD - 1949 AD
Sun Yatsen was the founding father of this, the Republic of China, which is Nationalist China.
Britain supports Jewish homeland in Palestine
Age of Anxiety
1919 AD - 1929 AD
The decade can be divided into two distinct periods. Five years of painful post World War I recovery (1919-1924), and 6 years of growing peace and progress (1924-1929). This included the roaring twenties. Period of social change in Europe and German hyperinflation due to war reparations.
19th Amendment is passed
Gives women the right to vote in America, however doesn't greatly affect political outcome as many women just vote similar to the men in their household.
Hitler withdraws from league of nations
1920 AD - 1945 AD
1929 AD - 1939 AD
A global economic depression that started with the crash of the New York Stock Market at the end of the roaring twenties. Global poverty and unemployment increases drastically.
Japans Conquest of chinese manchuria
1931 AD - 1932 AD
Japanese conquered the Manchurians,which shows their superiority.
Nuremburg laws take effect
These laws were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party.
It is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany.
Anschluss with austria
It was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany.
Japan signs tripartite pact with Germany, Italy
On this day in 1940, the Axis powers are formed as Germany, Italy, and Japan become allies with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin. The Pact provided for mutual assistance should any of the signatories suffer attack by any nation not already involved in the war.
Japan signs non-aggression pact with USSR
During World War II, representatives from the Soviet Union and Japan sign a five-year neutrality agreement. Although traditional enemies, the nonaggression pact allowed both nations to free up large numbers of troops occupying disputed territory in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia to be used for more pressing purposes.
Hitler commits suicide
Hitler was a horrible person and needed to die anyway, y'know.
Was the American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism. ($13 billion)
The Truman Doctrine was an international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947, which stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere.
Algerian war of liberation
1954 AD - 1962 AD
was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.
Saudi Arabia Abolishes Slavery
Change In Government
Diocletian Divides Rome
Divided into W and E halves.
Magna Carta Signed
Signed by King John. Transfered power from the monarchy to a parlimentary government. Begins the fall of totalitarian rule.
1337 AD - 1350 AD
An epidemic that swept through Europe during the dark ages. It decimated 2/3 of Europe's population at the time. Lack of medical advancements during the feudal kingdoms made it impossible to treat or battle the disease.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty declared by Pope Alexander VI and ratified by Portugal and Spain that gave Portugal all lands to the East of the line (which, in the New World, was pretty much only Brazil), and Spain all lands to the West.
Viceroyalty of New Spain
1519 AD - 1820 AD
Established after the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortes, it was comprised of Spain's colonial holdings in the New World.
Partitions of Poland
1772 AD - 1797 AD
The result of these partitions was the elmination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania.
Estates General established in France
Meeting called among three estates in France- clergy, nobles, and the masses to solve financial crisis. The third estate forms the National Assembly and makes the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen at the Tennis Court Oath.
Brazil gains independence from Portugese
Americans declare that any European peoples that economically interfere with Western Hemisphere has to go through the United States. Allowed America to largely control economy of South America.
Treaty of Nanjing
Unequal treaty in which Hong Kong was ceded to the British and ports were opened up to British merchants along the coast of China. Ultimately beneficial to China in the end.
French colonies abolish slavery
Communist Manifesto written
Written by Karl Marx, the father of Communism.
1861 AD - 1895 AD
Movement during the late Qing dynasty in an attempt to modernize China. Ended due to Empress Cixi diverting funds.
Us colonies abolish slavery
Scramble for Africa
1875 AD - 1900 AD
French, Portuguese, Belgians, and English competing for "uncolonized" land in Africa. England establishes strong presence in Egypt, and Rhodesia, build the Suez canal for access to Indian raw materials,and mine Rhodesia for gold and diamonds.
British colonies abolish slavery
Berlin West Africa Conference
1884 AD - 1885 AD
Fourteen European states and the US take part in a conference to partition all "unclaimed land" in Africa. Europeans easily take control of African Nations with superior tech. Only Ethiopia is able to fight off Italy in 1896.
Indian National Congress Founded
Founded to oppose Britian's rule in India. One of the founding members was Gandhi who used peaceful revolution to oppose imperialism. Efforts were truncated by the Muslim Nation congress created by the British to stop progress of the INC.
Brazil abolishes slavery
Brazil was the last to abolish slavery.
Muslim League Founded
Founded and supported by the British to stop effort of the INC to drive out imperialism in India.
1917 AD - 1918 AD
Civil war in Russia where Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize power in October. Motto of "Peace, Land, Bread," began immediate reforms of land, factories, and leads to formation of Soviet Union.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty with Russia and the central powers allowing Russia to leave the war to deal with their own civil war. In exchange Russia had to give up much land on its Western border. Receive nothing in recompense from the war due to leaving early.
German Economy Collapses
After intense hyperinflation from paying off war debts and reparations, the Germany economy finally collapses. Currency becomes worthless and all of western Europe is rebuilding except for Germany, leads to WWII.
Five Year Plan
1925 AD - 1953 AD
Plan to increase countries industrial out put immensely. Failed due to trying to grow too quick. Workers who failed to meet quotas were killed or imprisoned.
Partition of India
Muslim Pakistan, Hindu India
Yay! But not for surrounding Arab states.
Brown vs Board
= Integrated schools
Geneva Accords of Vietnam
Divides Vietnam into North (communist) and South (democratic) halves along the 17th parallel.
Year of Africa
Many decolonization movements!
Gorbachev Begins Reforms
Gorbachev goes for a more peaceful, cooperative approach with the United States, signalling the end of the Cold Wa.
1550 AD - 1700 AD
Emergence of science during the early modern period when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. Also, influenced the Enlightenment.
1760 AD - 1860 AD
New technological inventions, manufacturing, decline of cottage industries, causes huge advantages in world trade, spread of governmental systems.
1775 AD - 1783 AD
British colonies going against the English over taxation without representation, end of salutary neglect. Stems from the Enlightenment.
1791 AD - 1804 AD
The Haitians that fought in the revolution and spread the idea of freedom.
1839 AD - 1876 AD
Also known as the Turkish revolution. Change from absolute monarchy to constitutional government. Resulted in the modernization of Turkey
Second Industrial Revolution
1860 AD - 1914 AD
Scientific advances are applied to industry, moving to steel use and electricity as power, communication plays a major role, led by United States and Germany.
1920 AD - 1922 AD
A boycott on British goods supported by Gandhi and the INC. Many Indian's didn't buy any type of goods manufacture in Britain; textiles, medicines, foods. Meant to impose British imperialism.
Great Salt March
Gandhi and 80,000 Indian's march to the salt mine son the coast and take salt without paying, majority are thrown in jail. Meant to protest British Imperialism.
1936 AD - 1939 AD
Stalin reforms the government by eliminating half of his officers who he believed opposed the regime or would stand in the way. Estimated 10-20 million people killed during this period.
Great Leap Forward
1958 AD - 1961 AD
Called for the creation of large communes by Mao Zedong, "backyard" industries, crop failure lead to widespread famine and death. Program discontinued in 1961 causing Mao to step down for one year.
refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and United Kingdom, and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution.