Mr. Lights Extra Credit Timeline


Unit 1: Early Complex Societies

3500 BC

Unit 2: The Formation of Classical Societies

500 BC

Camels replace horses as transport animals.

300 AD


Unit 3: The Postclassical Era

500 AD

European population reaches 29 million

800 AD


Unit 4: An Age of Cross-Cultural Interaction

1000 AD

European polulation is 44 million

1100 AD


European population is 79 million

1300 AD


Unit 5: The Origins of Global Interdependence

1500 AD

Coal Production in England reaches 2.5 million tons

1750 AD

Unit 6: An Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire

1750 AD

Coal Production in England reaches 15 million tons

1828 AD

Emancipation of serfs in Russia

1861 AD

Policy led by Tsar Alexander II. Its purpose was to prevent a revolt led by the serfs, but led to the start of the civil war in Russia.

Unit 7: Contemporary Global Realignments

1914 AD

US has over 360K soldiers in Vietnam

1964 AD

Russia's First Free Election

1990 AD


05/16/2013 8:00 AM


Important Empires

Indus River Valley

3300 BC - 750 BC

One of the first river valley civilizations. Characterized by agricultural success, specialization of labor, centralized government, writing , and shared views.

Egypt's New Kingdom

1576 BC - 1085 BC

First female pharaoh Hatsheput

Shang Dynasty

1500 BC - 1046 BC

First organized dynasty in China. Very ethnocentric, isolated except for trade with Mesopotamia


1300 BC - 400 BC

Built square pyramids for religious ceremonies. Isolated from other civilizations, developed ball games and rubber. Had no middle class.

Zhou Dynasty

1029 BC - 258 BC

First dynasty after the warring states period. Characterized by: legalism, warring states era, and mandate of heaven.

Macedonian Empire

800 BC - 146 BC

Expansive conquest under Alexander the Great. Stretched from Greece all the way to India. Characterized by: expansive conquest, military supremacy, later democracy, city states unified by war.


550 BC - 300 BC

Spanned Mediterranean coast to West coast of India and Black Sea to Red Sea. Ruled by Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great.

Holy Roman Empire

500 BC - 500 AD

Largest and most powerful empire at the time. Characterized by: philosophical thinkers, republic, vast economic activity, military supremacy, modern day code of law.
From 500 BC to 49 BC, the country was a "republic" with the patricians making all of the decisions, not the citizens. Created the twelve tables law code.

Warring States Era

403 BC - 321 BC

Era of political chaos in China. Brought about Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism thought processes. China's feudal era.

Mauryan Empire

322 BC - 185 BC

Created by Alexander the Great, but left before ruling it. Chandragupta Maura came and ruled the united lands. Characterized by: Unified northern India, wealthy empire, bureaucracy, the first "motels" along trade routes, Asoka converts to Buddhism.

Qin Dynasty

221 BC - 202 BC

The unification of modern day China. Characterized by: legalism, land redistribution, law code, ruled by Qin Shi Huangdi, terra cotta army, public work projects.

Early Han Dynasty

202 BC - 9 AD

Founded by Liu Bang. Longest and largest dynasty in Chinese history. Monopolized iron, salt, and liquor. Golden age during Han Wudi.

Silla Dynasty

57 BC - 950 AD

Dynasty that tried to be similar to China in acomplishements and culture. Didn't have a merit base government system. Created the first typewriter.

Roman Empire Divided

284 AD

Diocletian officially divides thew roman empire into two parts, The eastern part (Byzantine Empire) and the western part.

Yamato Period

300 AD - 710 AD

Feudal period in Japan. Characterized by: increasing influence from China, including Confucianism, writing system (kanji), Zen Buddhism.

Gupta Dynasty

320 AD - 563 AD

Ruled by Chandra Gupta. Characterized by: smaller than Mauryan dynasty, Hinduism is main religion, astronomy, c-section, plastic surgery, golden age of India, declines when invaded by the Huns.

Byzantine Empire

500 AD - 1453 AD

Eastern part of Roman empire after its division. Characterized by: ruled by Justinian, christian empire, military might, Greek fire, buffer to western Europe, economic center, "middle man" of trade, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.

Medieval Period

500 AD - 1250 AD

Time of feudalism in Western Europe after fall of Roman empire. Characterized by: not much learning, advancement, or inventions, missionaries spread Christianity

Sui Dynasty

589 AD - 618 AD

Reunification of China after Han Dynasty. Characterized by: re-emergence of scholar gentry, powerful peasant army, legal code, building of Grand Canal to connect north and south China

Tang Dynasty

618 AD - 907 AD

Largest empire to date in China. Characterized by: strong centralized government, Confucian, graduated income tax, legal rights and divorce, control of sea trade, Buddhism, "Industrial Revolution"

Heian Period

749 AD - 1156 AD

Continuation of feudalism in Japan. Characterized by: moving away from Chinese influence, establishment of Shintoism, aristocratic rule, ends due to rise of military class.

Ghana Emprie

750 AD - 1076 AD

2nd Sudanic emprie. Characterized by: teritorial expansion, trade, urbanizatiion, conversionn to Islam by 10th centuries, nomadic raids weakened the empire.

Great Zimbabwe dominates Central Africa.

800 AD - 1600 AD

Sub saharan empire that dominatede trade and military conquests. Charcterized by: massive stone enclosures, suppied gold to swahili people, declined due to internal division.

Song Dynasty

960 AD - 1127 AD

Prosperous time in postclassical China. Characterized by: allocation of funds to education rather than military, growth of agriculture, Neo-Confucianism, encouragement of patriarchal society and footbinding, revival of Chinese culture, closest society to Industrial Revolution

Spanish Reconquista

1060 AD - 1492 AD

Spaniards attempting to regain independence from Umayyad Muslims that had settled in the Iberian Peninsula.

Mongol Empire

1200 AD - 1400 AD

Nomadic peoples formed the largest empire in world history united by Genghis Khan. Divided into four khanates in 1294. Characterized by: no centralized government, time of trade prosperity, excellent cavalry, assimilation of nomads into surrounding cultures.

Mali Empire

1230 AD - 1600 AD

East coast sudanic empire. Charterized by: slave trade, organized society based on clans, polagamy, Mansa Musa.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 AD - 1368 AD

Mongol empire in China. Characterized by: reformed social hierarchy with Chinese on bottom, ended Confucian exam system, increased trade, foreign Islamic administrators.

Ottoman Empire

1299 AD - 1923 AD

Islamic empire in the Middle East and Central Asia. Istanbul is capital. Characterized by: control of Mediterranean trade, superior technology, religious tolerance, Ghazi and Janissary fighters.

Aztecs found capital of Lake Tenochtitlan

1325 AD

Said to be where an eagle was grasping a snake while perched on a cactus.

Songhai Empire

1340 AD - 1591 AD

3rd sudanic empire. Characterized by: largest african empire, center around muslim faith, founded by Sunni Ali, expanded by Askia, conquered by Morracans.

Ming Dynasty

1368 AD - 1644 AD

The Ming replaces the Yuan dynasty, which is when the Mongols fell and it includes the voyages of Zheng He.

Aztec Empire

1427 AD - 1521 AD

Empire situated in south America on lake Titicaca. Charcterized by: overthrown Inca, Olmecs, Mayans, human sacrifice, traditinal religion, paid tributes.

Mughal Empire

1482 AD - 1530 AD

Empire in India founded by Babur. Characterized by: warrior aristocracy, weak bureacracy, better treatment of women, establishment of Sikhism as blend of Hindu and Muslim, religious tolerance.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 AD - 1868 AD

End of feudalism in Japan. Characterized by: military government, time of peace and stability, figurehead emperor, samurai lose power, building Japanese cultural identiy.

Qing Dynasty

1644 AD - 1914 AD

The Qing dynasty replaces the Ming Dynasty.


1922 AD - 1991 AD

Important Figures


551 BC - 479 BC

Wrote a book on Analects that stressed the importance of Li, and Ren. Also created the relationships of filial piety. Inspired civil service exams, and still important in modern day culture.

Darius I

521 BC - 486 BC

First ruler of the Persian Empire. Characterized by: balance between centralized rule and local government, royal road, Persian wars, coining of money.

Alexander the Great

332 BC - 323 BC

Leader of the Macedonia Empire. Characterized by: military supremacy (phalanx), expansive conquest, unification of India, son of Philip II, empire divided after his death and decline.

Asoka the Great

262 BC - 232 BC

Golden age of the Mauryan Empire. Characterized by: elephants in warfare, conversion to Buddhism after battle of Kalinga, centralized bureaucracy, pillars of Asoka, built roads to promote trade, decline of empire after death.

Qin Shi Hungdi

259 BC - 210 BC

Proclaimed himself first emperor of China. Characterized by: centralized power, land reforms, public service projects (great wall ), "kill thousands to save millions."

Lui Bang

202 BC - 195 BC

Founder of Early Han Dynasty. Created the longest dynasty in Chinese history. Characterized by: conquest of Vietnam, Korea, and central Asia, tribute system, monopolization of iron salt, and liquor, silk roads, trade with roman empire.

Han Wudi

141 BC - 87 BC

Ruled the Han Dynasty. Characterized by: centralizing government, expanding empire, Confucian civil service exams, increasing military, inventions of silk, compass, rudder, water mill, and paper.


319 AD - 335 AD

Ruler of the Gupta dynasty. Created the golden age of India with many advancements in technology and learning.


527 AD - 565 AD

Ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Characterized by: code of law, whore wife, creation of an economic superpower, thriving silk industry, Hagia Sophia.

Genghis Khan

1162 AD - 1227 AD

Leader of Mongols. Unified them by breaking up tribal affiliations in 1206, creates empire in 25 years through merit and loyalty.

Marco Polo

1245 AD - 1324 AD

Italian explorer who explored most of the world know at that time. Spent excessive time in Khublai Khans empire and court.

Monsa Musa

1280 AD - 1337 AD

Leader of the Mail empire. Charaterized by expanisve wealth, pilgramedge to Mecca.

Ibn Battutu

1304 AD - 1369 AD

Berber explorer who explored the entire Islamic world and made multiple hajj's. Significant because Dar-al-Islam afforded him the opportunity to travel throught the entire region with ease.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 AD - 1460 AD

Ruler, not an exlorer. Taught many famous exploreers.

Bartolomeu Dias

1451 AD - 1500 AD

A knight of the round table, sailing master, from Portugal.

Martin Luther

1483 AD - 1546 AD

German Monk whose 95 Theses protesting the Roman Catholic Church gained popularity (due to the printing press), starting the Protestant Reformation.

Christopher Columbus

1492 AD - 1500 AD

Spanish explorer who took 4 voyages to the New World, claiming it for Spain.

Vasco da Gama

1519 AD - 1524 AD

Greatest portugese explorer, found sea route to Indian port of Calcut.

Ferdinand Magellan

1519 AD - 1522 AD

Portuguese explorer. The voyage of Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, sailing first around Africa, across the Indian Ocean, to the Philippines (where he died), and his crew continued back to Portugal.

Ivan the Terrible

1533 AD - 1584 AD

Leader of Russia after Ivan the Great, increased the power of the tsar, expanded Russia into th elargest country in the world.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 AD - 1616 AD

Founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan. Reunified Japan after Feudal period.

Jusuits return under matteo Ricci

1552 AD - 1610 AD


1556 AD - 1605 AD

Leader of Mughal Empire, westernized military using gunpowder and Turkish military skills, religiously tolerant.

Galileo Galilei

1564 AD - 1642 AD

Played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

Louis XIV

1643 AD - 1715 AD

French monarch who was best known for constructing the Palace at Versailles.

Emperor Kangzi

1661 AD - 1722 AD

Peter I (The Great)

1682 AD - 1725 AD

Ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire.


1689 AD - 1755 AD

Enlightenment thinker who thought of separation of government, influencing the United States government today (judicial, executive, legislative).


1694 AD - 1778 AD

Enlightenment thinker, "friend" of King of Prussia, who advocated tolerance of religion, race, sexual orientation, gender, etc.

Adam Smith

1723 AD - 1790 AD

Father of Capitalism.

Emperor Qianlong

1736 AD - 1795 AD

Miguel Hidalgo

1753 AD - 1811 AD

Leads independence movement for Mexico by rallying peasants against the peninsulares.

King Louis XVI

1754 AD - 1793 AD

Absolute ruler in France that was thrown from power by the National Convention during the French Revolution.

Maximilien Robespierre

1758 AD - 1794 AD

Leader of radical Jacobins in France after fall of absolute monarch. Attacked Catholicism and called for universal adult male suffrage.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 AD - 1797 AD

Enlightenment thinker who would champion women's rights in salons.

Catherine II (The Great)

1762 AD - 1796 AD

Inspired by Enlightenment ideals and based her society off of them. She westernized Russia and gave too much power to the owners of the serfs which resulted in the end of her reign.

Captain James Cook

1768 AD - 1779 AD

British explorer who discovered oceanic islands including Australia, New Zealand, Australia, and New Caledonia.

Napoleon Bonaparte

1769 AD - 1821 AD

Declares himself emperor of France in 1799. Attempts to expand France's borders, but fails when he invades Russia during the winter.

Simon Bolivar

1783 AD - 1830 AD

Led independence movements for many South American countries by rallying peasants against the Spanish. His vision was to make a United States of South America and help indigenous people gain rights.

Empress Dowager Cixi

1835 AD - 1908 AD

Leader of the Boxer Rebellion in China, squashed the self-strengthening movement by diverting funds.

Rudyard Kipling

1864 AD - 1936 AD

Short story author. Originated the White Man's Burden, a theory in which validated the U.S's involvement in foreign affairs with South America

Sun Yatsen

1866 AD - 1925 AD

Yatsen as a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China").

Empror Mutushito takes power

1868 AD

Sets goals of prosperity and strength for Japan, "rich country, strong army." Resolved to learn western technology, wanted to combine western advances with eastern values.

Mahatma Gandhi

1869 AD - 1984 AD

Peaceful rebellion to British imperialism in India and Hindu/Muslim tension. Great Salt march, fasting, civil disobedience, non-cooperation movement. Assassinated by Hindu extremest who believed he showed too much sympathy to the Muslims


1869 AD - 1948 AD

was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world.

Vladimir Lenin

1870 AD - 1924 AD

Bolshevik leader, overthrew Romanofs. Created new economic policy for Russia, creates limited communist reforms in order to promote agricultural and industrial development. Dies in 1924 and succeed by Stalin.

George C. Marshall

1880 AD - 1989 AD

was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Gained the allied victory in WW2.

Benito Mussolini

1883 AD - 1945 AD

Italian fascist leader. Father of fascism, leader during WWI, didn't like Hitler but realized potential as ally.

Mao Zedong

1893 AD - 1976 AD

was a Chinese communist revolutionary, politician and socio-political theorist. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death.

Emperor Hirohito

1901 AD - 1989 AD

Was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989.

Anwar Sadat

1918 AD - 1981 AD

League Of Nations

1920 AD - 1945 AD

was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

Chiang Kai-Shek

1925 AD - 1931 AD

Succeeds Sun Yatsen as leader of Kuomintang Communist China

Joseph Stalin

1925 AD - 1953 AD

Takes over after Lenin, creates the communist state envisioned by the Bolsheviks, eliminates private firms for government controlled business. Kills millions in his reforms. Establishes the USSR. Five year plans and great purge to try and increase industrialization and purify the government.

Fidel Castro

1926 AD - Present

Castro is a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008.

Che Guevara

1928 AD - 1967 AD

Revolutionary who helped incite revolutions throughout Latin America. Supported Castro in Cuba. Personal favorite of Mr. Light.

MLK Junior

1929 AD - 1968 AD

Led Civil Right's Movement in US.

Boris Yeltsin

1931 AD - 2007 AD

Russian leader.

Adolf Hitler

1933 AD - 1945 AD

Elected chancellor of Germany. Promised the people that Germany would reclaim its former glory as super power. Broke rules set at treaty of Versailles. Leader of the Nazi part, leader of one of the largest genocides in history, committed suicide to evade capture.

United Nations

1945 AD

The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.

Communist Revolution

1949 AD

Communists lead by Mao Zedong used guerrilla warfare against to in a war between the communist party and the nationalist party. Eventually the communists win creating the People's Republic of China.

Rosa Parks

1955 AD

Montgomery bus boycott

Nelson Mandela

1994 AD - 1999 AD

1994 - 1999 AD were the years Mandela was President.


Persian Wars

500 BC - 479 BC

War between the Persian state and the city states of the Hellenistic empire.The Persian army was defeated by the Athenian city state swell as the Spartan city state.

Peloponneseian Wars

431 BC - 404 BC

War between the city states of Athens and Sparta. Hurt the empire and caused eventual downfall. Sparta beats Athens.

Battle of Kalinga

262 BC - 261 BC

War between the state of Kalinga and the Mauryan empire. After seeing the death and destruction, Asoka converts to Buddhism and so does the majority of his empire.

Battle of Kalinga

262 BC - 261 BC

Led by Ashoka, in Southern India. Slaughter causes him to convert to Buddhism.

The Crusades

1095 AD - 1291 AD

Religious fighting between Christians and Muslims. Muslim use of gunpowder overpowered the Western European swords. Had little effect on the Muslim world, but took a toll on Europe by killing good amount of population.

Genpei Wars

1180 AD - 1185 AD

Conflict between Taira and Minamoto clans during late-Heian Period in Japan. Resulted in fall of Taira clan and establishment of Kamakura shogunate.

Gempei Wars

1185 AD

Uprising of the peasants against the samurai, destroying the Japanese countryside. Results in the establishment of the "bafuku", or military government, under the Minamoto family.

Hundred Years War

1337 AD - 1453 AD

War between England and France. England is victorious, shows western europe the muslim technology. Ends feudalism in England.

Hernan Cortez conquers the Aztecs

1521 AD

Aided due to superior weaponry, infectious diseases, and superior metallurgy (steel).

Francisco Pizzaro conquers the Incas

1533 AD

Thirty Years' War

1618 AD - 1645 AD

Not actually thirty years in duration. Conflict started when the Holy Roman Emperor attempted to forcibly bring back his subjects into the Church, from Protestantism. The main battleground was present-day Germany, killing around 1/3 of its population.

7 Years' War

1756 AD - 1763 AD

War between England and France over colonial rivalries in the New World. Also known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre. English victory set them up for world hegemony.

Pugachev Rebellion

1773 AD - 1774 AD

The principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in Russia after Catherine II seized power in 1762.

Battle of Saratoga

1779 AD

The British defeated by colonists that serves as a wake up call in the American Revolution.

Battle of Yorktown

1781 AD

Final battle of the American Revolution.

Storming of the Bastille

1789 AD

Third estate in France attempts to gain ammunition from a prison controlled by the government.

War of 1812

1812 AD - 1815 AD

Britain tries to stop trade between France and America, but gradually delay their efforts in order to avoid another detrimental war.

Opium Wars

1839 AD - 1860 AD

British monopolized trade on opium from India and sold extensively to China. The wars consisted of the Chinese resisting trading in opium, while the British continued to exert their dominance.

Mexican-American War

1846 AD - 1848 AD

US gains Texas in the Treaty of Guadalupe (1848).

Taipang Rebellion

1850 AD - 1864 AD

Civil war in China in which Hong Xiuquan, a Christian, calls for the destruction of the Qing dynasty. He is ultimately defeated by European weaponry when the British and French aid the Qing.

Nain Rebellion

1851 AD - 1868 AD

Attempt by Chinese to topple the Qing dynasty.

Crimean War

1853 AD - 1856 AD

Russia vs. the Ottomans over control of land. France and British side with Russia and help them to defeat the Ottomans, but Russian weakness in technology was exposed. The first modern war involving communication systems and electricity.

Sepoy Revolt

1857 AD - 1858 AD

Revolt of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the British armies in India over the use of pork and beef fat on the rifle cartridges. Results in 60 soldiers and 120 civilians murdered in massacre. British retaliate with 375 women and children being murdered in the soldiers town, the British then take control and have a show trail with the 40 revolutionaries.

American Civil War

1861 AD - 1865 AD

Southern states withdraw from the Union to form the Confederacy. South fights for ability to secede and continue the practice of slavery. The north ultimately wins and slavery is abolished by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 by the Emancipation Proclamation.

Battle of Gettysburg

1863 AD

Battle during American Civil War. Defeat of greatest general in the South, Robert E. Lee. Turns the tide against the South in favor of the North.

Meiji Restoration

1868 AD - 1912 AD

Brief civil war between imperial and Tokugawa Japan. Results in Emperor Mutsuhito taking power, conscripted army takes over for samurai.

Sino-Japanese War

1894 AD - 1895 AD

Japan vs. Qing dynasty in a battle for land. Japanese win due to modernized military and serves as a wake-up call to China to start industrializing. Opens the world's eyes up to increasing Japanese power.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 AD - 1901 AD

A movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Characterized by: support from empress Cixi, opposition to western influence, belief that guns wouldn't hurt them, besiege US Embassy in 1900, crushed by coalition of European forces.

Boer Wars

1899 AD - 1902 AD

War between dutch settlers in south Africa and the British. British take land in 1806 and give land to the Afrikaners to settle on. The British find gold on the land and want it back, British win war and turn the Afrikaners into slaves to mind the gold.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 AD - 1901 AD

Formed by Empress Cixi and declared war on foreign powers in an attempt to push out their influence on China. Ultimately unsuccessful due to insufficient weapons.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 AD - 1905 AD

War between Japan and Russia. Japan wins due to superior military technology. Russia is embarrassed and realizes they need to modernize.

Bloody Sunday

1905 AD

During a peaceful rebellion against the Tsar military officials massacred 40 people in the crowd after firing in it to make them disperse.

World War I

1914 AD - 1918 AD

Global conflict that was started with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist. Pulled other nations into the conflict through Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism. Two sides Allied powers (R+E+F) and Central powers (T+A+G). Italy switches sides.

US Enter WWI


US Enter after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese. Join the allied powers after Russia leaves. Major force for the Allied powers, bring sift end to war.

Armritsar Massacre

1919 AD

Probably the most fateful and petrifying day in the History of Indian Freedom Movement is the day of the Amritsar Massacre.

May 4th Movement

1919 AD

Nationalist rally against the treaty of Versailles.

Civil Disobedience Movement

1930 AD

Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. This movement was led by Gandhi when the British was in control of India.

World War II

1931 AD - 1945 AD

WW2 was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.

Rape of Najing

1937 AD

The massacre and atrocities commited by the Japanese imperial army when they conquered Nanjing.

Saddam Hussein

1937 AD - 2006 AD

President of Iraq and brought the party to power in Iraq.

Ivasion of Poland

1939 AD

It was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.

Pearl Harbor

1941 AD

Was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor.

Hitler invades USSR

1941 AD

The destruction of the Soviet Union by military force, the permanent elimination of the perceived Communist threat to Germany.

Soviets regroup and attack Hitler

1942 AD

Battle of Stalingrad

1943 AD

The Battle of Stalingrad was a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union.


1944 AD

The Allies carried out a massive deception operation intended to make the Germans think the main invasion target was Pas-de-Calais (the narrowest point between Britain and France) rather than Normandy.

Potsdam Conference

1945 AD

Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. The three powers were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, and, later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.

135,000 germans killed in shelters in dresden

1945 AD

was an attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, that took place in the final months of the Second World War in the European Theatre.

Cold War

1945 AD - 1991 AD

was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.

Yalta Conference

1945 AD

was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.


1948 AD - 1994 AD

was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments.

Korean War

1950 AD - 1953 AD

Proxy war of the Cold War against the communist N and democratic S. Nothing is accomplished, and the country remains divided by the 38th parallel.

Vietnam War

1955 AD - 1975 AD

Proxy war of the Cold War between a communist North (led by Ho Chi Minh) and a democratic South. The North eventually wins out and unites Vietnam under communism after the US withdraws.

Space Race

1957 AD - 1975 AD

Competition between the Soviet Union and US for scientific advancement into space.

500K French Soldiers in Algerian War

1958 AD

Tonkin Gulf Attack

1964 AD

USS Maddox sunk = Gives US reason to enter Vietnam War. Some say the US planned this. Who knows?

Arab-Israeli Conflict

1967 AD

Arabs don't like Jewish Palestine. 6-day war.

Prague Spring

1968 AD

USSR crushes anticommunist movement.

War in Afghanistan

1978 AD - 1989 AD

Proxy war of the Cold War. US helps Islamic mujahideen defeat Soviets in the area.

Iran-Iraq War

1980 AD - 1988 AD

was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Baathist Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war after the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Fall of the Berlin wall

1989 AD

Berlin wall separated East, and West Germany.


Hinduism is Born

5500 BC

Oldest organized religion. Believed to have started sometime in this era. Characterized by: one god with many different forms, rigid caste system, reincarnation and multiple lives needed to reach nirvana.

Birth of Judaism

1800 BC

Birth of the first Abrahamic religion.

Zoroastrianism is Born

1550 BC

First Monotheistic Religion. Practiced in the Persian empires. Moving away from animism to physical deities.

Buddhism is Born

600 BC

Siddhartha, a Brahman who was unhappy with the caste system was under house arrest. He left, and meditated until he reached enlightenment. Taught the four Nobel truths, don't have a centralized "God," they believe everyone can achieve enlightenment in one lifetime.

Jewish Diaspora

586 BC - 538 BC

A time period when the Jews were forced out of their homes and native lands and had to find new places to live.

Birth of Christianity

33 AD

Started by Jesus of Nazareth, spreads over Roman Roads, then Silk Roads.

Christianity becomes official religion of Europe

380 AD

Becomes official religion of Byzantine empire, the main superpower in Europe at the time.

Islam is Born

622 AD

Third and final Abrahamic religion. Five pillars of Islam must be adheared to by all Muslims. Has both enthinc and universalizing sects. Third Abrahamic Religion. Believe that Jesus is Prophet and that Muhammad is their savior. Youngest religion.

Great Schism

1054 AD

Split between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism Christianity over whether to use Jesus as an idol in the government. Catholics wanted government integrated into religion and orthodox wanted separation of church and state.

Ming Dynasty

1368 AD - 1644 AD

Chinese dynasty following Yuan dynasty. Characterized by: no outside influence, great wall of China, "brilliant" dynasty, enuchs, fell to mancurian Qing dynasty.

Incan Emprie

1438 AD - 1533 AD

Andes mountains in South America. Charterized by: short height, terrace farming, Mita, paved roads, Quipu.

Ivan the Great

1440 AD - 1505 AD

Ruler of Russia that replaced Golden Horde, westernized Russia, used loyalties to Orthodox Church.

Guru Nanak

1469 AD - 1539 AD

Founder of the religion of Sikhism, a blend between Hinduism and Islam.

Spanish Inquisition

1481 AD - 1492 AD

Attempt to rid the Iberian peninsula from Jewish and Islamic influence, which also extended to Protestantism as well.

Triangular Slave Trade

1500 AD - 1800 AD

Trade between Europe, Africa and the New World. Trading firearms and maunfactured goods to Africa for slaves and going to the New World for raw materials.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1618

Movement away from the Roman Catholic Church. Started by Martin Luther, and culminating in the Thirty Years' War.

Council of Trent

1545 AD - 1563 AD

A series of meetings within the Roman Catholic Church to revise doctrines in response to Protestantism.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 AD - 1679 AD

Enlightenment thinker who wrote "Leviathan", stating that there is a social contract between ruler and subjects, and that control must be absolute.

John Locke

1632 AD - 1704 AD

Enlightenment thinker who believed that mind was a "blank slate", and influenced the United States Declaration of Independence with his idea of basic human rights.

Isaac Newton

1642 AD - 1727 AD

Was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.


1680 AD - 1770 AD

The age of learning and rebirth.

The Enlightenment

1700 AD - 1800 AD

Intellectual movement away from the Church, and to reform society based on reason. It challenged ideas grounded in faith and sought to advance knowledge through the Scientific Method, following the Scientific Revolution.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 AD - 1788 AD

Enlightenment thinker. Ideas of individual freedoms under rule influenced the French Revolution.

Tokugawa reform of Japan

1841 AD - 1843 AD

Tries to end feudalism, abolishes merchant guilds, compelled peasants to return t cultivating rice, ultimately ineffective reforms.

Mathew Perry Opens Port of Tokyo

1853 AD

USA Naval officer sails to Japan with gunships and forces open the port of Edo (Tokyo), causes a revolt against the Shogun and and rally around the emperor in Kyoto.

Hundred Days Reform

1889 AD - 1990 AD

Qing Dynasty. An attempt by the government to modernize like western Europe after the exclusion from the Ming dynasty. Fails due to Empress Cixi's lack of support.

Panama Canal Project

1904 AD - 1914 AD

United States receives permission to build a canal after helping to gain Panama's freedom from Columbia. America mostly takes advantage of Panama and exploits them through trade.

Republic of China

1912 AD - 1949 AD

Sun Yatsen was the founding father of this, the Republic of China, which is Nationalist China.

Balfour Declaration

1917 AD

Britain supports Jewish homeland in Palestine

Age of Anxiety

1919 AD - 1929 AD

The decade can be divided into two distinct periods. Five years of painful post World War I recovery (1919-1924), and 6 years of growing peace and progress (1924-1929). This included the roaring twenties. Period of social change in Europe and German hyperinflation due to war reparations.

Hitler withdraws from league of nations

1920 AD - 1945 AD

19th Amendment is passed

1920 AD

Gives women the right to vote in America, however doesn't greatly affect political outcome as many women just vote similar to the men in their household.

Great Depression

1929 AD - 1939 AD

A global economic depression that started with the crash of the New York Stock Market at the end of the roaring twenties. Global poverty and unemployment increases drastically.

Japans Conquest of chinese manchuria

1931 AD - 1932 AD

Japanese conquered the Manchurians,which shows their superiority.

Nuremburg laws take effect

1935 AD

These laws were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party.

Anschluss with austria

1938 AD

It was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany.

Munich Conference

1938 AD

It is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany.

Japan signs tripartite pact with Germany, Italy

1940 AD

On this day in 1940, the Axis powers are formed as Germany, Italy, and Japan become allies with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin. The Pact provided for mutual assistance should any of the signatories suffer attack by any nation not already involved in the war.

Japan signs non-aggression pact with USSR

1941 AD

During World War II, representatives from the Soviet Union and Japan sign a five-year neutrality agreement. Although traditional enemies, the nonaggression pact allowed both nations to free up large numbers of troops occupying disputed territory in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia to be used for more pressing purposes.

Hitler commits suicide

1945 AD

Hitler was a horrible person and needed to die anyway, y'know.

Truman Docterine

1947 AD

The Truman Doctrine was an international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947, which stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere.

Marshall Plan

1947 AD

Was the American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism. ($13 billion)

Algerian war of liberation

1954 AD - 1962 AD

was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.

Saudi Arabia Abolishes Slavery

1960 AD

Change In Government

Diocletian Divides Rome

284 AD

Divided into W and E halves.

Magna Carta Signed

1215 AD

Signed by King John. Transfered power from the monarchy to a parlimentary government. Begins the fall of totalitarian rule.

Black Plague

1337 AD - 1350 AD

An epidemic that swept through Europe during the dark ages. It decimated 2/3 of Europe's population at the time. Lack of medical advancements during the feudal kingdoms made it impossible to treat or battle the disease.

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494 AD

Treaty declared by Pope Alexander VI and ratified by Portugal and Spain that gave Portugal all lands to the East of the line (which, in the New World, was pretty much only Brazil), and Spain all lands to the West.

Viceroyalty of New Spain

1519 AD - 1820 AD

Established after the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortes, it was comprised of Spain's colonial holdings in the New World.

Partitions of Poland

1772 AD - 1797 AD

The result of these partitions was the elmination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania.

Estates General established in France

1789 AD

Meeting called among three estates in France- clergy, nobles, and the masses to solve financial crisis. The third estate forms the National Assembly and makes the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen at the Tennis Court Oath.

Brazil gains independence from Portugese

1821 AD

Monroe Doctrine


Americans declare that any European peoples that economically interfere with Western Hemisphere has to go through the United States. Allowed America to largely control economy of South America.

Treaty of Nanjing

1842 AD

Unequal treaty in which Hong Kong was ceded to the British and ports were opened up to British merchants along the coast of China. Ultimately beneficial to China in the end.

Communist Manifesto written

1848 AD

Written by Karl Marx, the father of Communism.

French colonies abolish slavery

1848 AD

Self-Strengthening Movement

1861 AD - 1895 AD

Movement during the late Qing dynasty in an attempt to modernize China. Ended due to Empress Cixi diverting funds.

Us colonies abolish slavery

1865 AD

Scramble for Africa

1875 AD - 1900 AD

French, Portuguese, Belgians, and English competing for "uncolonized" land in Africa. England establishes strong presence in Egypt, and Rhodesia, build the Suez canal for access to Indian raw materials,and mine Rhodesia for gold and diamonds.

British colonies abolish slavery

1883 AD

Berlin West Africa Conference

1884 AD - 1885 AD

Fourteen European states and the US take part in a conference to partition all "unclaimed land" in Africa. Europeans easily take control of African Nations with superior tech. Only Ethiopia is able to fight off Italy in 1896.

Indian National Congress Founded

1885 AD

Founded to oppose Britian's rule in India. One of the founding members was Gandhi who used peaceful revolution to oppose imperialism. Efforts were truncated by the Muslim Nation congress created by the British to stop progress of the INC.

Brazil abolishes slavery

1888 AD

Brazil was the last to abolish slavery.

Muslim League Founded

1906 AD

Founded and supported by the British to stop effort of the INC to drive out imperialism in India.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1917 AD

Treaty with Russia and the central powers allowing Russia to leave the war to deal with their own civil war. In exchange Russia had to give up much land on its Western border. Receive nothing in recompense from the war due to leaving early.

Bolshevik Revolution

1917 AD - 1918 AD

Civil war in Russia where Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize power in October. Motto of "Peace, Land, Bread," began immediate reforms of land, factories, and leads to formation of Soviet Union.

German Economy Collapses

1923 AD

After intense hyperinflation from paying off war debts and reparations, the Germany economy finally collapses. Currency becomes worthless and all of western Europe is rebuilding except for Germany, leads to WWII.

Five Year Plan

1925 AD - 1953 AD

Plan to increase countries industrial out put immensely. Failed due to trying to grow too quick. Workers who failed to meet quotas were killed or imprisoned.

Partition of India

1947 AD

Muslim Pakistan, Hindu India

Israel Independence


Yay! But not for surrounding Arab states.

Geneva Accords of Vietnam

1954 AD

Divides Vietnam into North (communist) and South (democratic) halves along the 17th parallel.

Brown vs Board

1954 AD

= Integrated schools

Year of Africa


Many decolonization movements!

Gorbachev Begins Reforms

1985 AD

Gorbachev goes for a more peaceful, cooperative approach with the United States, signalling the end of the Cold Wa.


Scientific Revolution

1550 AD - 1700 AD

Emergence of science during the early modern period when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. Also, influenced the Enlightenment.

Industrial Revolution

1760 AD - 1860 AD

New technological inventions, manufacturing, decline of cottage industries, causes huge advantages in world trade, spread of governmental systems.

American Revolution

1775 AD - 1783 AD

British colonies going against the English over taxation without representation, end of salutary neglect. Stems from the Enlightenment.

Haitian Revolution

1791 AD - 1804 AD

The Haitians that fought in the revolution and spread the idea of freedom.

Tanzimat Reorganization

1839 AD - 1876 AD

Also known as the Turkish revolution. Change from absolute monarchy to constitutional government. Resulted in the modernization of Turkey

Second Industrial Revolution

1860 AD - 1914 AD

Scientific advances are applied to industry, moving to steel use and electricity as power, communication plays a major role, led by United States and Germany.

Non-Cooperation Movement

1920 AD - 1922 AD

A boycott on British goods supported by Gandhi and the INC. Many Indian's didn't buy any type of goods manufacture in Britain; textiles, medicines, foods. Meant to impose British imperialism.

Great Salt March

1931 AD

Gandhi and 80,000 Indian's march to the salt mine son the coast and take salt without paying, majority are thrown in jail. Meant to protest British Imperialism.

Great Purge

1936 AD - 1939 AD

Stalin reforms the government by eliminating half of his officers who he believed opposed the regime or would stand in the way. Estimated 10-20 million people killed during this period.

Great Leap Forward

1958 AD - 1961 AD

Called for the creation of large communes by Mao Zedong, "backyard" industries, crop failure lead to widespread famine and death. Program discontinued in 1961 causing Mao to step down for one year.

Iranian Revolution

1979 AD

refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and United Kingdom, and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution.