Sir Isaac Newton

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Birth

December 25, 1642

Birth of Isaac Newton in Woolsthorpe, England

Remarries and moves away

January 1646

Hannah Newton remarries and moves away, leaving her son to be raised by an uncle.

Beheaded by Cromwell and the Puritans

January 30, 1649

Charles I beheaded by Cromwell and the Puritans.

Death of Hannah's second husband

1653

Death of Hannah's second husband; she returns to live with Isaac, bringing three children with her from her second marriage.

Newton enrolls in the Grantham Grammar School

1654

Newton enrolls in the Grantham Grammar School

Death of Cromwell

September 3, 1658

Death of Cromwell

Charles II crowned King of England, Restoration begins

1660

Charles II crowned King of England, Restoration begins

Newton enrolls in Trinity College, Cambridge

1661

Newton enrolls in Trinity College, Cambridge

Founding of the Royal Society

July 1662

Founding of the Royal Society

Newton receives his bachelor of arts from Trinity College

1665

Newton receives his bachelor of arts from Trinity College

Fire in London

1666

Fire in London. Outbreak of plague drives Newton to retire to his mother's home in Woolsthorpe. Newton conducts prism experiments, discovers spectrum of light; works out his system of "fluxions," precursor of modern calculus; begins to consider the idea of gravity

Newton appointed Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Trinity

1669

Newton appointed Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Trinity, a position he will hold for the next thirty-four years

Newton works on the mathematics of gravitation

1670

Newton works on the mathematics of gravitation in his home in Cambridge.

Newton elected to the Royal Society

January 11, 1672

Newton elected to the Royal Society

Newton's paper on optics and his prism experiments sent to the Society

February 1672

Newton's paper on optics and his prism experiments sent to the Society. Rivalry with Hooke begins.

Hooke writes book in which he suggests existence of "attractive powers,"

1674

Hooke writes book in which he suggests existence of "attractive powers," akin to gravity.

Death of Hannah Newton

1679

Death of Hannah Newton

Hooke discusses principle of inverse squares with Christopher Wren and Halley

January 1684

Hooke discusses principle of inverse squares with Christopher Wren and Halley

Halley goes to visit Newton in Cambridge

August 1684

Halley goes to visit Newton in Cambridge, where they discuss the principle inverse squares and its relationship with planetary orbits

Newton completes his calculations on gravity and shares them with Halley

November 1684

Newton completes his calculations on gravity and shares them with Halley, who urges him to publish.

Newton sends a brief treatise

February 1685

Newton sends a brief treatise, Propositiones de Motu, to the Royal Society, outlining his findings

Newton presents the first book of the Principia to the Royal Society

April 1686

Newton presents the first book of the Principia to the Royal Society

Publication of the complete Principia

September 1687

Publication of the complete Principia

Glorious Revolution in England

1688 - 1689

Glorious Revolution in England. James II flees to France, William and Mary take the throne

Newton elected as Cambridge's representative to Parliament

1689

Newton elected as Cambridge's representative to Parliament

1693: ·Newton's "Black Year."

1693

Newton's "Black Year." He is plagued by depression and insomnia, and apparently suffers a nervous breakdown in September.

Newton appointed warden of the Mint

1695

Newton appointed warden of the Mint, to oversee the implementation of a new currency. He leaves Cambridge and moves to London

Newton named master of the Mint.

1699

Newton named master of the Mint.

Death of Hooke

1703

Death of Hooke; Newton elected President of the Royal Society

Publication of Opticks; beginning of feud with Leibniz.

1704

Publication of Opticks; beginning of feud with Leibniz.

Newton knighted by Queen Anne.

1705

Newton knighted by Queen Anne.

Royal Society commission

1712

Royal Society commission, under Newton's direction, investigates the competing claims of Leibniz and Newton to having developed calculus, and decides in favor of Newton.

Second edition of the Principia published.

1713

Second edition of the Principia published.

Death of Leibniz

November 14, 1714

Death of Leibniz

Third edition of the Principia published

1726

Third edition of the Principia published; all reference to Leibniz has been removed.

Death of Sir Isaac Newton, in London.

March 20, 1727

Death of Sir Isaac Newton, in London.