Tijdlijn Cultuur en Media

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The ENIAC

1946

The second electronic computer that was build. It was made for the US army.

"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" - Claude E. Shannon

1948

"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an influential article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon about information as a concept.

The Internet

1962

The Internet got its start in the United States as a government weapon in the Cold War. In 1962, a scientist named J.C.R. Licklider proposed a solution to the formerly fragile communication network: a “galactic network” of computers that could talk to one another.

Sketchpad

1963

A revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland, which was groundbreaking for Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI).

First connection between two computers (US)

1965

Roberts

"The medium is the message" - McLuhan

1967

McLuhan states that the medium determines the information that it brings forth.

First Electronic Mailingsystem (US)

1972

The Apple II

1977

IBM Personal Computer, type 5150

1981

World Wide Web

1993

The development of the Mosaic webbrowser and breakthrough of the internet as we know it best: The World Wide Web.

"Hardware/Software"- Friedrich Kittler

1993

Kittler states that a separation between communication and power is not possible, especially not in an age in which the power structures are embedded in the hardware of media technologies. The hardware of digital technology structures the content, not vice versa.

"Orders of Simulacra" - Jean Baudrillard

1993

In this chapter from his book "Symbolic Exchange and Death", Baudrillard charts the development of Western culture in terms of a movement through three orders of simulacra. The first is the Renaissance, in which the copying of nature is key. The second is the Industrial age, in which massproduction makes its rise. The third order is the order of simulation that contains a model to which everything is made.

Hyperspace

1993 - 1995

Random movement of the web.

Cyberspace

1995 - 1998

A space that needs to be explored.

"Archive Fever" - Jaques Derrida

1995

In his essay, Derrida wants to see the concept of archive in a new light, which involves the changes around digital communication and new storage possibilities.

Internet Explorer

august 1995

The first version of Internet Explorer, founded by Microsoft.

"Information Age" - Manuel Castells

1996

Trilogy that further inspects the network society and the informational society. He states that the network society is determined by a 'space of flows' and 'timeless time'. Castells also pinpoints the me-centred network.

Internet Bubble

1997 - 2000

A period of time in which stock markets their assets rise rapidly from growth in the Internet sector.

Network Space

1998 - 2002

The web as a bunch of interlinked sites.

Google

4 september 1998

Founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

"Embodied virtuality" - Katherine Hayles

1999

Hayles states that it is wrong to split mind from body or hardware from software. Information can never do away with matter of the body, because otherwise it can't exist. Therefor she rather speaks of 'embodied virtuality' instead of hyperreality.

Yahoo! Lawsuit in France

2000

Ligue contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme et Union des étudiants juifs de France c. Yahoo! Inc. et Société Yahoo! France (LICRA v. Yahoo!): This case was about the sale of memorabilia from the Nazi period by internet auction and the application of national laws to the internet. This resulted to the use of IPtoGEO technology, which is used to tailor content to the users location.

Wikipedia

2001

Founded by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.

"Web 2.0" - Tim O'Reilly

2001

This refers to the development of the internet to an interactive environment where the the user has an input: user generated content.

"The Language of New Media" - Lev Manovich

2001

An essay that analyses the conceptual underpinnings and materialities of interfaces. The computer has become a filter for culture.

Myspace

2002 - 2005

The realization of 'daily me'

"Interactivity: A Concept Explanation" - Spiro Kiousis

2002

In this essay Kiousis questions whether interactivity is strictly dependent upon the technology used, or if it's a perception of the users' minds.

"Anywhere-anytime dream" - Stephen Graham

2004

Graham calls the promise that interactivity will smooth and unlimited interaction between users and machines in practically any setting a myth, or an "anywhere-anytime dream.

Facebook

4 february 2004

Founded by Mark Zuckerburg

Locative Space

2005 - 2008

Tailoring content to users location

"Steve Museum"

2005

Social tagging project: Ordinary people give 'tags' to works of art to remove the semantic gap.

Twitter

21 march 2006

Founded by Obvious Corp.

Dropbox

june 2007

Founded by Drew Houston and Arash Ferdowsi.

Social Space

2008 - 2011

The Web as a platform.

"Pulse Park" - Rafael Lozano-Hemmer

2008

A typical example of: "How do we preserve this artwork?"

Cloud Space

2011 - 2020

Wholesale transfer of cultural memory to corporate servers.

iCloud

6 june 2011

Produced by Apple

"The Gallery of Lost Art" - Tate Modern

2 july 2012

New technology makes it possible to exibit works of art that are no longer around.