History of the World

Russian Tsars

French Monarchs

English Monarchs

Alfred the Great

871 - 899

House of Saxon
Expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian twon of London in 886
Translated Boethius Augusting and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon

William the Conqueror

1066 - 1087

First Norman King of England
Duke of Normandy
Launched the Norman Conquest

Henry II

1154 - 1189

House of Plantagenet
Son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152
Developed common law and due process
Fought with Thomas a Becket over submission to the Pope - had Becket executed

Richard I (the Lionhearted)

1189 - 1199

Son of King Henry II
Commander during the Third Crusade
Scored significant victories against Muslim counterpart, Saladin

King John (Lackland)

1199 - 1216

House of Plantagenet
Tried to sieze crown from his brother, Richard who forgave him
Refused to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbur and so was excommunicated by the Pope
King Philip II routed him at Bouvines in 1214
Forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215

Richard II

1377 - 1399

Son of Edward the Black Prince
Reigned during the Peasant's Revolt in 1381
Lost control of government to group of noblemen known as the Lords Appellant

Henry IV

1399 - 1413

House of Plantagenet
Asserted his grandfather's (Edward III's) claim to the title King of France
Son of John of Gaunt
Deposed Henry II, his cousin
The first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, one of the two family branches that were belligerents in the War of the Roses

Henry V

1413 - 1422

House of Lancaster - the second English monarch from this house
Henry of Monmouth
Led England in Hundred Years' War - famous victory at Battle of Agincourt
Married the daughter of Charles VI of France, Catherine of Valois
Features in three plays by Shakespeare

Richard III

1483 - 1485

Died during Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 (a decisive battle in the War of the Roses)
Last king of House of York
Last of the Plantagenet dynasty
Deformed by a hunchback

King Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

House of Tudor
Son of Tudor founder Henry VII
Brought England into the Renaissance and Reformation
Patronized the philosopher Erasmus, the painter Holbein the Younger, and the writer Thomas More
Named "Defender of the Faith" by Pope - HA!
Named himself head of the Church of England in 1533 so he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn
Executed ministers who crossed him like Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More
Married six times, but only Jane Seymour (third wife) bore him a son - Edward VI
Wives include - Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleaves)

Mary I

1553 - 1558

aka "Bloddy Mary" - b/c of prosecution of Protestants
Only child of the marriage between Henry VIII & Catherine of Aragon
Married Philip of Spain in 1554 - Queen consort of Habsburg Spain
Restoration of Roman Catholicism

Queen Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

aka "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana", "Good Queen Bess"
Fifth and last monarch of Tudor dynasty
Daughter of Anne Boleyn
Established an English Protestant Church
One of her mottos - "video et taceo" ("I see, an say nothing")

James I (VI of Scotland)

1603 - 1625

House of Stuart
Target of Guy Fawkes' failed Gunpowder Plot

Charles I

1625 - 1649

House of Stuart
Son of James I
Last absolute English monarch
Forced to sign the Petition of Right
Last straw - his attempt to reform the Scottish Church
During English Civil War, he was convicted of treason and executed

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Not a monarch - the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland & Ireland
Dismissed the Rump Parliament to establish the short-lived Barebones Parliament

Charles II

1660 - 1685

House of Stuart
Son of Charles I
King of Scotland while Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth
Target of Popish plot
Wife - Catherine of Braganza

James II (VII of Scotland)

1685 - 1688

House of Stuart
Titus Oates fabricated the 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II that would supposedly have elevated the Roman Catholic James to throne
Heavy favoritism towards Catholics
Deposed in the bloodless Glorious Revolution
Exiled to Louis XIV's court

William III (of Orange) and Mary II

1689 - 1702

Mary ruled to 1694
Ruled jointly
Both were protestants
Mary was the daughter of Charles II

George III

1760 - 1820

House of Hanover
Lost the American colonies in Revolutionary War
Suffered from porphyria, causing the "madness" that ultimately led to the Regency period (1811 -1820) of his son George IV

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

House of Hanover
Empress of India
Longest reigning monarch in British history
Influenced the passage of Reform Act of 1867
Favored Prime Ministers: Lord Melbourne, Robert Peele, Benjamin Disraeli)

Elizabeth II

1952 - Present

House of Windsor
Husband - "Prince" Philip Mountbatten
Sons - Charles (Prince of Wales), Andrew

British Prime Ministers

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

1st British PM
During reigns of George I and George II

William Pitt (the Elder)

1766 - 1768

Led British during Seven Years' War

William Pitt (the Younger)

1783 - 1801

Youngest PM
Son of William Pitt the Elder
During reign of George III
Referred to himself as "independent whig"

Robert Peele

1834 - 1835

British Conservative
Repealed the Corn Laws
Helped create modern concept of police force ("Bobbies" & "Peelers")
Issued the Tamworth Manifesto (1834)

Lord Palmerston

1855 - 1858

aka "Pam" or "The Mongoose"
Most recent PM to die in office
During US Civil War

William Gladstone

1868 - 1874

Rivalry with Disraeli
Bad relations with Queen Victoria
Oldest Prime Minister
Served in Cabinet of Sir Robert Peele

Benjamin Disraeli

February 1868 - December 1868

Rivalry with Gladstone
Friendship with Queen Victoria

Benjamin Disraeli

1874 - 1880

Rivalry with Gladstone
Friendship with Queen Victoria

William Gladstone

February 1886 - July 1886

Rivalry with Disraeli
Bad relations with Queen Victoria
Oldest Prime Minister
Served in Cabinet of Sir Robert Peele

William Gladstone

1892 - 1894

Rivalry with Disraeli
Bad relations with Queen Victoria
Oldest Prime Minister
Served in Cabinet of Sir Robert Peele

David Lloyd George

1916 - 1922

Guided Britain through WWI

Ramsay MacDonald

January 1924 - December 1924

1st Labour PM in UK

Ramsay MacDonald

1929 - 1935

1st Labour PM in UK

Neville Chamberlain

1937 - 1940

Known for his appeasement foreign policy
Signing of Munich Agreement in 1938

Winston Churchill

1940 - 1945

led UK during WWII
Only British PM to receive Nobel Prize in Literature
1st person to be made Honorary Citizen of US
Wrote such pieces as "Savrola", "The River War", "The Second World War"

Clement Atlee

1945 - 1951

Replaced Churchill at Potsdam Conference
Longest ever Serving Leader of British Labour Party

Winston Churchill

1951 - 1955

led UK during WWII
Only British PM to receive Nobel Prize in Literature
1st person to be made Honorary Citizen of US
Wrote such pieces as "Savrola", "The River War", "The Second World War"

James Callaghan

1976 - 1979

Leader of Labour Party
Only person to have served in all four of the Great Offices of State: PM, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

Longest serving PM of UK in 20th c.
Only British PM
"Iron Lady"
Led Britain during Falklands War

John Major

1990 - 1997

Led British involvement in Gulf War
Claimed to have negotiated "Game, Set and Match for Britain" at the Maastricht Treaty (Dec. 1991)

Tony Blair

1997 - 2007

Labour Party
Supported foreign policy of President George W. Bush

Gordon Brown

2007 - 2010

David Cameron

2010 - Present

US Presidents

George Washington

1789 - 1796

VP - John Adams
No party
Sec of State - Jefferson
Sec of Treasury - Hamilton
Sec of War - Knox
Sec of Navy - Randolf

John Adams

1796 - 1800

VP - Thomas Jefferson
Federalist Party

Thomas Jefferson

1800 - 1808

VP - Aaron Burr, George Clinton
Democratic-Republican Party
Sec of State - Madison

James Madison

1808 - 1816

VP - George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry
Sec of State - Monroe

James Monroe

1816 - 1824

VP - Daniel Tompkins
Sec of State - Quincy Adams
Sec of War - Calhoun
Era of Good Feeling

John Quincy Adams

1824 - 1828

VP - Calhoun
Sec of State - Clay

Andrew Jackson

1828 - 1836

VP - Calhoun, Van Buren
Sec of State - Van Buren
Sec of War - Eaten
One of two presidents to be impeached

Martin Van Buren

1836 - 1840

VP - R. Johnson

William Henry Harrison

1840 - 1841

VP - Tyler
Sec of State - Webster
Died one month into office

John Tyler

1841 - 1844

Secs of State - Webster, Calhoun
The "Accidental President"

James K. Polk

1844 - 1848

VP - Dallas

Zachary Taylor

1848 - 1850

VP - Fillmore
Sec of State - Clayton
Sec of War - Crawford

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1852

Postmaster General - Hubbard

Franklin Pierce

1852 - 1856

VP - King
Sec of War - Jefferson Davis

James Buchanon

1856 - 1860

VP - Breckinridge
Attorney General - Edwin Stanton

Abraham Lincoln

1860 - 1865

VP - Hamlin, Johnson
Sec of State - Seward
Sec of Treasury - Chase
Sec of War - Stanton
Assassinated - by JWB

Andrew Johnson

1865 - 1868

Sec of State - Seward

Ulysses S. Grant

1868 - 1876

VP - Colfax, H. Wilson

Rutherford B. Hayes

1876 - 1880

VP - Wheeler

James A. Garfiled

1880 - 1881

VP - Arthur
Sec of War - Robert Lincoln
Assassinated by Charles I. Guiteau

Chester A Arthur

1881 - 1884

Sec of War - Robert Lincoln

Grover Cleveland

1884 - 1888

VP - Hendricks

Benjamin Harrison

1888 - 1892

VP - Morton

Grover Cleveland

1892 - 1896

VP - Adlai Stevenson I

William McKinley

1896 - 1901

VP - Hobert, Roosevelt
Assassinated bby Leon Golgosz

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 - 1908

VP - Fairbanks
Attempted assassination by John Schrank
Sec of War - Taft
Sec of Interior - James A. Garfield (Son of President Garfield)

William Taft

1908 - 1912

VP - Sherman

Woodrow Wilson

1912 - 1920

VP - Marshall
Sec of State - William Jennings Bryan

Warren G. Harding

1920 - 1923

VP - Coolidge
Sec of Interior - Albert Fall
Sec of Commerce - Hoover

Calvin Coolidge

1923 - 1928

VP - Dawes
Sec of State - Kellogg (Kellogg-Bryan Pact aka Pact of Paris)
Sec of Commerce - Hoover

Herbert Hoover

1928 - 1932

VP - Curtis
Hoover Towns, Hoover Flags, etc.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1932 - 1945

VP - Garner, Wallace, Truman
Sec of Labor - Francis Perkins (1st Female Cabinet Member)

Harry Truman

1945 - 1952

VP - Barkley
Sec of Labor - Francis Perkins

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1952 - 1960

VP - Nixon

John F. Kennedy

1960 - 1963

Attorney General - Robert F. Kennedy
Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald

Lyndon B. Johnson

1963 - 1968

VP - Humphrey
Attorney General - Robert Kennedy

Richard M. Nixon

1968 - 1974

VP - Ford
Sec of State - Kissinger
Watergate Scandal (Woodward & Bernstein, Mark Felt aka "Deepthroat")

Gerald R. Ford

1974 - 1976

VP - Rockefeller
Sec of State - Kissinger

James Carter

1976 - 1980

VP - Mondale

Ronald Reagan

1980 - 1988

VP - H.W. Bush

George H.W. Bush

1988 - 1992

VP - Quayle
Sec of Defense - Cheney

Bill Clinton

1992 - 2000

VP - Al Gore
Sec of State - Madeline Albright (1st Female Sec of State)
One of two presidents to be impeached

George W. Bush

2000 - 2008

VP - Cheney
Sec of State - Powell, Rice

Barack Obama

2008 - Present

VP - Biden
Sec of State - Clinton, Kerry
Sec of Treasury - Geithner, Lew
Sec of Defense - Panetta, Hagel
Attorney General - Holder
Sec of Interior - Salazar, Jewell
Sec of Agriculture - Vilsack
Sec of Commerce - Byson, Blank
Sec of Labor - Solis, Harris
Sec of Health & Human Services - Sebelius
Sec of Housing & Urban Development - Donovan
Sec of Transportation - LaHood
Sec of Energy - Chu, Poneman
Sec of Education - Duncan
Sec of Veterans Affairs - Shinseki
Sec of Homeland Security - Napolitano
SCOTUS Appointees: Sotomayor, Kagan

Supreme Court Cases


First Peloponnesian War

460 BC - 445 BC

Sparta (Peloponnesian League) vs Athens (Deli an League)
Began with Battle of Oenoe
Ended with ratification of Thirty Years' Peace

Second Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Sparta (Peloponnesian League) vs Athens (Athenian Empire)
Three phases: Archidamian War, Attack in Sicily, Decelean War (or Ionian War)
Ended Golden Age of Greece

Pyrrhic War

280 BC - 275 BC

Involved Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians
Source of term "Pyrrhic victory"
Would eventually culminate in the Punic wars

First Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

First of three wars between Ancient Carthage and Roman Republic
Carthage is located in what is today Tunisia
The two powers struggled for power in: Sicily, Apennine peninsula, North Africa
Punici - Latin name for Carthaginians

Second Punic War

218 BC - 201 BC

aka The Hannibalic War (by the Romans), The War Against Hannibal, The Carthaginian War
Crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies
Involved Hannibal's crossing of the Alps and crushing victories over Romans at Battle of the Trebian and giant ambush at Trasinene
Romans deployed the Fabian Strategy
Iberia served as main source of manpower for Cathaginian army
Roman expedition under Scipio Africanus ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in Battle of Ilipa
Battle of Zama - final showdown - in Africa between Scipio Africanus and Hannibal
Hannibal's forces lost and harsh peace conditions on Carthage
First Macedonian War - sideshow of Second Punic War

Norman Conquest

1066 - 1088

Invasion of England by William, Duke of Normandy who became known as William the Conqueror after victory at Battle of Hastings Defeating King Harold II of England
Led to a period known as Norman England

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

Attempt by Roman Catholic England to regain the Holy Lands taken in Muslim conquests of Levant
Resulted in recapture of Jerusalem in 1099
Launched by Pipe Urban II
European crusaders travelled first to Constantinople then to Jerusalem

Second Crusade

1145 - 1149

In response to fall of County of Edessa
Announced by Pope Eugene III
First crusade led by European kings such as Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany
Expulsion of Moorish occupants from Lisbon

Guelphs and Ghibellines

1159 - 1345

Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and Holy Roman Empire respectively
Struggle for power between Papacy and HRE had arisen from the Investiture Conflict which began in 1075 and ended in 1122 with Concordat of Worms

Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

aka King's Crusade
Attempt by European Leaders to reconquered the Hily Land from Saladin
Failure in ultimate goal to reconquer Jerusalem - would lead to Fourth Crusade
Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended conflict with each other to lead new crusade (Richard the Lionhearted took over for Henry on his death)
HRE Frederick Barbarossa responded to call to arms - his successor was Leopald V of Austria

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and attacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople (Capital of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire)
One of final acts in the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church
The Crusaders established the Latin empire

Albigensian Crusade

1209 - 1229

Initiated by Pope Innocent II to well eliminate Catharism in Languedoc
The Cathers were a medieval Christian sect with a neo-manichaean philosophy - became known as the Albigensians as it gained many adherents in the city of Albi and surrounding area in the twelfth and thirteenth century

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Commonly separated into three phases (or four): Edwardian war, Caroline war, Lancastrian war
Saw slow decline of Plantagenet fortunes and appearance of Joan of Arc
Other wars directly related to this crisis: Breton War of Succession, Castilian Civil War, War of the Two Peters
Plantagenets lost land including Gascony which they had held since marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II but retained the Pale of Calais

Peasant's Revolt

1381 - 1382

aka Wat Tyler's Rebellion or Great Rising of 1381
Leaders included John Ball, Wat Tyler, Jack Straw

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Series of civil wars for the throne of England
Between supporters of two rival branches of House of Plantagenet: houses of Lancaster(white rose) and York (red rose)
Final victory of Henry Tudor (crowned Henry VII) over last Yorkist king Richard III at Bosworth
House of Tudor ruled England after
Henry of Bolingbroke (crowned Henry IV) had established House of Lancaster
Henry V maintained hold on crown and infant son Henry VI took over after he died
Margaret of Anjou - queen to Henry VI
First open fighting at First Battle of St Albans
Richard of York defeated Henry and returned to England to become Protector of England
Henry eventually murdered in Tower of London


Treaty of Tordesillas

June 7 1494

Divided the New World between Spain and Portugal
Resulted from (Spanish-born) Pope Alexander VI granting lands to Spain and established a line west of the Cape Verde islands between future Spanish possessions (west) and Portuguese possessions (east)

Peace of Westphalia

May 1648 - October 1648

Collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War
Signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic
Confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religo" - that a ruler's religion determined that of his country

Treaty of Utrecht

March 1713 - April 1713

Mostly ended the War of Spanish Succession
Signed by France and Spain for one side and by Britain, Savoy, and the United Provinces (The Netherlands) for the other
Confirmed Bourbon prince (Philip, Duke of Anjou) on the Spanish throne

Treaty of Ghent

December 24 1814

Ended the War of 1812
Due to the distance between the Belgian city of Ghent and the US, the treaty did not prevent the Battle of New Orleans two weeks later
The treaty had minimal effect

Adams-Onís Treaty

February 22 1819

aka - Transcontinental Treaty
Settled a boundary dispute between the US and Spain that arose following the Louisiana Purchase
Negotiated by then-Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
Sold Florida to the US in exchange for payment of citizens claims against Spain

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2 1848

Ended the Mexican-American War
Signed in namesake neighborhood of Mexico City
Most significant result: the "Mexican Cession" - transferred California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of four other states to the US
Made the Rio Grande the boundary between Texas and Mexico

Treaty of Paris

December 10 1898

Ended the Spanish-American War
Transferred Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the US, while making Cuba (ostensibly) independent
Beginning of American imperialism

Treaty of Portsmouth

September 5 1905

Ended the Russo-Japanese War
Signed after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize)
The treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more

Treaty of Best-Litovsk

March 3 1918

Signed by the Bolshevik government of the new USSR and Germany
The USSR needed to make peace to focus on defeating the "Whites" (royalists) in the Russian Civil War
Gave up Ukraine, Belarus, and the three Baltic countries after Germany invaded
Nullified by the Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles

June 28 1919

Ended WW1
Noted for "Big Four" - Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd-George, Georges Clemenceau, and Vittorio Orlando
Included discussions of Wilson's Fourteen Points (ex - League of Nations)

The Lateran Treaty

February 11 1929

Created the independent country of the Vatican City, made Catholicism the state religion of Italy, and determined the proper remuneration for Church property taken by Italy
Signed by Benito Mussolini and a representative of Pope Pius XI

Camp David Accords

September 17 1978

Negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel's Menachem Begin.
Brokered by US President Jimmy Carter
Resulting peace treaty returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normolized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries
Isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981

Current World Leaders

US History


Scientific Discoveries/Scientists