The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

The Rise of the Dictators

Totalitarianism

1930

A totalitarian state is when the government aims to control the political, economical , socail, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens.
Leaders wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their people. Totalitarian states that emerged were led by a single party and a single leader. Totalitarian states expected the active involvement of the masses in achievement of its goals.

Only Two Democratic States

1939

Only France and Great Britain were democratic. Italy, the Soviet Union and Germany adopted dictatorial regimes.

Fascism in Italy

Fascio di Combattimento

1919

Mussolini created this new political group called the league of combat

First European Fascist Movement

1920 - 1930

Benito Mussolini established this movement in Italy. Was a socialist. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual. In a fascist state, people are controlled by the government.

Rise of Fascism

Blackshirts

1920 - 1921

Italy experienced many economic problems. Industrial and agricultural workers staged strikes. Middle class feared communism take over. Mussolini formed bands of black shirted , armed Fascists. They attacked socialist offices and newspapers. They used violence to break up strikes. Middle class and working class people supported Mussolini.

March into Rome

1922

Italians were angry that Italy did not receive more land in the peace settlements. Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march into Rome if they were not given power. Mussolini used his position as prime minister to form a fascist dictatorship.

The Fascist State

OVRA

1926

Fascist outlawed all other political parties in Italy and created a secret police, OVRA. By the end of the year, Mussolini ruled Italy. Purpose was to monitor the political activities and organizations of the masses.

Fascist Youth Groups

1939

Youth groups included 66 percent of the population ages between 8 and 18. Members of the groups wore military styled uniforms and practiced military drills.

Lenin's New Economic Policy

NEP

March 1921

Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss and abandoned war communism in favor of NEP. NEP was a modified version of the old capitalist movement. Peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly. Retail stores could be privately owned.

USSR

1922

Lenin and the communists created a new state called the union of soviet socialist republics or the soviet union. Saved economy from complete economic disaster. Was only meant to be temporary.

The Rise of Stalin

Lenin Dies

1924

Right after Lenin died, power struggle among the Politburo began. The party was split in two on what policy the USSR should follow. Lenin Trotsky wanted to end NEP and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrilization.

Elimination Bolshevicks

1929

Stalin gained control of the party. He expelled Lenin from the party in 1927

Trotsky Dies

1940

Trotsky exiles to mexico and Stalin hires an assassin to murder Trotsky.

Five Year Plans

First Five Year Plan

1928

Stalin made a shift in economic policy when he ended the NEP and started his first 5 year plan. These 5 year plans set economic goals for 5 year periods. The purpose was to industrialize Russia. The first 5 year plan emphasized maximum production of armaments and capital goods such as heavy machines.

Collectivization

1930

This is where private farms are eliminated and instead the government controls all the land while the peasants work them. Many peasant resisted collectivization and instead of having animals and crops seized, they burnt crops and killed their animals.

Cost of Stalin's Programs

Stalin's Purge

1930 - 1940

Stalin removed all opponents or imagined opponents from the soviet union. Stalin also condemned all the old bolshevicks to death. Stalin also purged army officials, diplomats, union officials, party members, intelectuals and many ordinary citizens. Over 8 million russians were arrested or sent to forced labor camps in Siberia.

10 Million Die

1932 - 1933

Collectivization came at a harsh price because of all the livestock and animals killed. Between 1932 and 1933, 10 million peasants died.

Spain

Civil War in Spain

1936 - 1939

Led by James Franco, Spain resisted democracy and began its own civil war. War ended when Franco's forces captured Madrid.