A totalitarian state is when the government aims to control the political, economical , socail, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens.
Leaders wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their people. Totalitarian states that emerged were led by a single party and a single leader. Totalitarian states expected the active involvement of the masses in achievement of its goals.
Only France and Great Britain were democratic. Italy, the Soviet Union and Germany adopted dictatorial regimes.
Mussolini created this new political group called the league of combat
Benito Mussolini established this movement in Italy. Was a socialist. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual. In a fascist state, people are controlled by the government.
Italy experienced many economic problems. Industrial and agricultural workers staged strikes. Middle class feared communism take over. Mussolini formed bands of black shirted , armed Fascists. They attacked socialist offices and newspapers. They used violence to break up strikes. Middle class and working class people supported Mussolini.
Italians were angry that Italy did not receive more land in the peace settlements. Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march into Rome if they were not given power. Mussolini used his position as prime minister to form a fascist dictatorship.
Fascist outlawed all other political parties in Italy and created a secret police, OVRA. By the end of the year, Mussolini ruled Italy. Purpose was to monitor the political activities and organizations of the masses.
Youth groups included 66 percent of the population ages between 8 and 18. Members of the groups wore military styled uniforms and practiced military drills.
Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss and abandoned war communism in favor of NEP. NEP was a modified version of the old capitalist movement. Peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly. Retail stores could be privately owned.
Lenin and the communists created a new state called the union of soviet socialist republics or the soviet union. Saved economy from complete economic disaster. Was only meant to be temporary.
Right after Lenin died, power struggle among the Politburo began. The party was split in two on what policy the USSR should follow. Lenin Trotsky wanted to end NEP and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrilization.
Stalin gained control of the party. He expelled Lenin from the party in 1927
Trotsky exiles to mexico and Stalin hires an assassin to murder Trotsky.
Stalin made a shift in economic policy when he ended the NEP and started his first 5 year plan. These 5 year plans set economic goals for 5 year periods. The purpose was to industrialize Russia. The first 5 year plan emphasized maximum production of armaments and capital goods such as heavy machines.
This is where private farms are eliminated and instead the government controls all the land while the peasants work them. Many peasant resisted collectivization and instead of having animals and crops seized, they burnt crops and killed their animals.
Stalin removed all opponents or imagined opponents from the soviet union. Stalin also condemned all the old bolshevicks to death. Stalin also purged army officials, diplomats, union officials, party members, intelectuals and many ordinary citizens. Over 8 million russians were arrested or sent to forced labor camps in Siberia.
Collectivization came at a harsh price because of all the livestock and animals killed. Between 1932 and 1933, 10 million peasants died.
Led by James Franco, Spain resisted democracy and began its own civil war. War ended when Franco's forces captured Madrid.