Art and the Revolutions in France

Photography

Niepce, View from Niepce's window at Gras, 1826

1826

Daguerre, Still Life in the Artist's Studio, 1837

1837

Daguerre, View from the Boulevard du Temple, Paris, 1838

1838

Sabatier-Blot, Portrait of a man. 1844

1844

Negre, Henri Le Secq at Notre Dame Cathedral, 1851

1851

Nadar, Charles Baudelaire, 1855

1855

Oscar Rejlander, Two Ways of Life, 1858

1858

Nadar, George Sand, unknown

1860

Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1864

1864

Realism

Bonheur, The Horse Fair, 1853-55

1853
  • exhibited at the Salon of 1853
  • widely considered to have been the most famous female painter of the nineteenth century
  • measured eight feet high by sixteen feet wide. Its subject is the horse market held in Paris on the tree-lined boulevard de l’Hôpital, near the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, visible in the background on the left

Manet, Olympia, 1863-65

1863 - 1865

Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863

1863

Impressionism

Pissaro, The River Oise at pointoise, 1872

1872

Morisot, The Cradle, 1872

1872
  • impressionism was day to day life so Morisot painting her family often
  • upper class life

Monet, Impression, Sunrise, 1872

1872

-coined phrase impressionism

Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873- 74

1873 - 1874

Exhibited at first impressionist exhibition 1874

View looking out of a window from Nadars studio which turned out to be where the first impressionist exhibition would be

Louis Leroy coined the term impressionism referred to the people in this painting as “black tongue lickings” – what monet saught to do by rendering people in this way was to have intentional sketchy application of paint so that the surface of the canvas is emphasized and 2D is emphasized not fully describing ojects but applying paint much more loosely giving us a sense of what the viewer would perceive capturing in a fleeting moment

Produced during the third republic (1870-1940) in the city established during the second republic where the city planning went through a transformation. Transformation took place under prefex of the Sienne named, Baron Haussamann

Morisot, Butterfly Hunt, 1874

1874

Impressionism famous for painting en plein air outside for direct observation
1869- first dated plein air painitng
produced more quickly working with oil paints before they dry, as a female artist she can exhibit with the impressionist exhibit

Degas, Rehearsal, 1877

1877

what he does again is cut of the stairs and the rehearsal behind aswell as the events on the right. We don’t see all the figures fully or the events that are taking place.
He studies from life and attends shows. He does his work in the studio working in a traditional academic sense translating prepatory work in his studio into final works. He develops of vocabulary of figures repeating them through works
His moments are constructed moments around composition
Degas is one of the figures in the impressionist group who is very good at bringing people in
He showed at 7/8 exhibitions
He brought in Mary Cassatt an American citizen trained at the Pennsylvania academy of art

Degas, Dancer with a Bouquet, c. 1878

1878

this is a pastel, depicting his famous subject of contemporary life; ballerinas
Degas didn’t like being labeled an impressionist and preferred to be a realist or an independent (not part of the impressionist group)
Notion of momentary view (similar to monets boulevard painting out the window) achieved differently – not through sketchiness of application, but actually a great deal of detail, Degas has strong academic training showing at the Salon. The view he gives us is equally as momentary as monets through the window painting but conveys notions of a spontaneous vision is how he crops his composition and how he structures the objects he’s including giving a strong sense of that which is in the composition extending beyond the confines of the canvas.
He has worked and reworked the surface

Cassatt, Little Girl in a Blue armchair, 1878

1878

so we can see it isn’t just a group of French artists. She and degas both share a strong interest in photography which contributes to the notion of spontaneous vision in their work.
Moves between portraiture and genre painting, meant to be casual and show idea of a particular moment
Think about representation of space and three dimensionality, composition seems to go into space but also up reminding us of the flatness of the canvas.

Pissaro, Wheel Barrow in the Orchard, 1879

1879

Had a parental role in the group and was a little bit older than other members therefore got them organized etc.
Only artist in the impressionist group to show at all 8 exhibitions
Depicts someone working in an orchard – aka not a borgiose class
Pissarro also depicts industry far more than other impressionist artists, he will show industry integrated into the landscape ex-

Renoir, Luncheon of the Boating Party, 1880-1881

1880 - 1881

Contour lines more clearly defined reminding us more of somebody like Agnes or David. He’s coding classes through codes
Not all artists have the same working practice and Renoir defines sthe body in a much more academic sense
Artists were still showing at the Salon, and fighting for recognition in that context was very meaningful

Cassatt, Woman and Girl Driving, 1881

1881

Can see strong academic training around definition of line and contour line
Pieces of the composition extend beyond the canvas
Cassatt is one of the 4/55 women to exhibit with the impressionists
One of the critiques on the impressionists was calling them feminine – part because they included female artists but lobbied that the technique was feminine. Emphasis on surface considered feminine. Critics attack the group as feminine
Representation of women in public space challenging the ideas of women being confined to domestic space – the woman driving in this image challenges that. Notion of a female artist depicting contemporary life is in part what makes some people uncomfortable with the female artists in the group “the new woman” did not have her identity challenged (ex not being seen as a prostitute)

Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, 1884-95

1884 - 1895

cast in 1925

Claudel, The Ages of Life, (or also known as: the ages of maturity), 1893

1893

She was Rodin’s student, then became his apprentice, and it is believed she is responsible for the hands and feet of the bergers of callaise. The issue of working in somebody else’s studio is that your work could be passed off as somebody else’s
unfolding to be read from right to left, expressive potential of the figure, and expressive potential of the surfaces

Rodin, Monument to Balzac, 1897-98

1897 - 1898

Bolzac a 19th century writer – the society of men of letters commissioned a monument of Bolzac
The previous artist working on this idea envisioned him seated
In Rodins desire to be a realist he wanted this sculpture to evoke this image by first studying a nude body of somebody who was approx. the same proportions as Bolzac – he even tracked down Bolzac’s tailor and have suits made
He depicted Bolzac wearing a cloak to capture the idea of the writer who awakes in the middle of the night to wake up to write therefore capturing Bolzac in a moment

When it was shown viewers referred to it as “ugly” not showing him in the complimentary way sitting with a quill and a book, not idealizing his figure, physique, or the way that his face looks. 9 feet tall. It was said this ugly representation would not inspire people.
You can see in his goals how the exterior of the sculpture can express something. Could he convey something of the intellectual spirit of bolzac? Through the heavy set eyes, wild hair.
A private patron was willing to cast this in his lifetime but he chose not to because he was so upset at the public reception and rejection from the men of the letters.
It wasn’t until after his death that this was cast.

Claudel, The Conversationalist

1897

she finds all the veining that comes through in the onyx which is unexpected so as an artist she had to be willing to embrace the expressiveness of the material. We would NOW refer to this as mixed media

one can achieve what can otherwise not be achieved, it is possible to have a complex multi-figure composition because they are all clustered and can touch eachother and support eachother. – but for below, bronze was more reliable, so bronze was used for the figures and onyx for the base

Claudel, The Wave,

1897

Monet, Water Lilies, 1905

1905

Monet was very successful and rented Giverny only then to buy it. Myth that they were misunderstood unsuccessful artists. Monet gardens feverishly sets up a pond and river setting up a Japanese garden himself with the help of hired gardeners. In 1905 Monet had been working on representations of his garden for 20 years, and he immerses himself in the same subject matter, these are plein air paintings
Water Lillies, 1923 over 7 year period
Moving into a more subjective experience about aesthetics and what painting and practice can be, large scale. Wants us to be immersed in nature and feel that we are one with nature achieved through layers and layers and layers of paint.
Not at all a social vision but instead a retreat from contemporary life. 1883 he moves to Giverny, theres a railway track that goes through his property and in 1914 Giverny is a battleground and soldiers rode the railway – he is choosing here to be removed from everyday life. Even after the group stopped exhibiting together they still had very successful careers in different directions laying the grounds for interests in 20th century painters

Post-Impressionism

Seurat, Sunday afternoon on Ile de Grande Jatte, 1884-1886

1884 - 1886

Cezanne, Mont Sainte Victoire,1885-1887

1885 - 1887

Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon (Jacob wrestling the Angel), 1888

1888

In Brittany he explores the potential uses of colour
This work shows a collection of female Bretons and you see a deptiction of them in their traditional garments, the title refers to the subject which he imagines.
Depicts women going into the landscape after the Sunday sermon. He’s positing this as an imaginary scene that they perceive themselves as witnessing in the landscape. On the right there we see Jacob wrestling the angel and a cow. The red background as we said earlier is more characteristic to Gauguin like that van Gogh piece from before. The landscape is shown as red, intentionally chosen aand helps to show to us that this is not the real but a symbolic realm
In part expressing his feelings about a subject and the Bretons spiritual intensity. Colours don’t necessarily have a one for one relationship like they do in the real world. Gauguin looks to medieval art and looks to enamels where there are solid blocks of colour bringing forward a technique called cloisonnism, showing a large area of paint making a flat surface cloisonné is the term in French for these spaces

Van Gogh, Night Cafe, 1888

1888

his choice of paint helps to show that oil lighting is used, the drink absynth is depicted and was a toxic drink that is now illegal. The games table looms in the composition, the floors create a great deal of depth.
 
We know a lot about him through his letter writing, most to theo but some to other family members.
Called this work “one of the ugliest I have done” tried to show “the ugliest aspects of humanity” “blood red and yellow with a green billiard table” “in my picture I have tried to express the idea that the café is a place where one can ruin themselves, go mad, commit crimes”

Van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889

1889

Some of his existing health issues and drinking absynth lead to epilepsy. The result of social loneliness and so much absynth drinking was when a fellow artisr Gogan came to visit, the had a very nice exchange painting together – then exasperated by asynth got into an argument and cut off his ear lobe.
At this point he goes to an asylum. His neighbors were very distraught and they petitioned to put him in the hospital.
there’s more going on here than just the sky – Cyprus trees the sky etc. it’s the way he depicts them and applies paint in this heavy thick stroke application – you would identify as impressionist stroke but the thickness and control is not impressionist or spontaneous, he would actually be behind bars looking at the sky from the hospital windows
he doesn’t need to sell his work because theo gives Vincent a monthly fee to live off of and in exchange his works belong to theo- so some are shipped to theo and stored in his tiny apartment. So,
He’s bringing together an impressionist and pointillist technique.
He’s not seeking to communicate with an audience because of the relationship he has with his brother enabling him to paint without worrying about making profit off his work. Shifts the paradigm for the production of art and the ration as to why someone is painting.
The colours are in part descriptive to reality but similar to night café there were choices about colour to convey emotions – colour is being released from its descriptive function. We know from letters he looked out his window in the asylum onto the landscape, he was thinking about nebuli and stars and we can see a mix between the reality of what he sees and what he feels which is all activated through the technique.

Van Gogh, Self Portrait, 1889

1889

Post impressionism
had a very short career, no dated works before 1880, takes of in 1885 and dies in 1890.
We can see how he takes on controlled impressionist stroke. Through his brother theo van gogh, had the opportunity to come to paris in 1886. His brother worked for an art dealer and through theo he had the opportunity to see the various styles (impressionist and neo impressionist) this is an artist who we would regard as revolutionary, a blending of impressionist and neo impressionist to create a controlled brush stroke, ridges between strokes building up on the canvas. His style embodied his psychological states.
We talk about biographical details when its important; many perceptions of his work are entirely wrapped up in biographical details – and so he poses for us a different was of viewing the art as related to the producer and the psyche of the producer.

Cezanne, Still life with basket of apples, 1890-94

1890 - 1894

Toulouse Lautrec, Moulin Rouge La Goule, 1891

1891

lithograph
advertisement
poster

Gauguin, Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?, 1897

1897

Fauvism

Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse, 1905

1905

Figure reduced to head and shoulders, accessories, hat and clothing gone
Smaller painting but monumental effect
Famous for yellow green stripe that goes down her face, dividing it in 2
Harmonious but opposite colours indicate full light and half light
Contemporaries find this to be jarring
Conventional portraiture, fits in, but he wants to liberate colour from all of the ways in which it has to describe what you see in nature

Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat, 1905

1905

Part of group of artists that exibited at a kind of alternate salon called the fall salon
A critis was appalled by this artists work “looks like the work of wild beasts” Fauves” – the wild beasts
Surface activated by brushstrokes
Jabbing at surface of canvas

Analytic Cubism

Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victiore, 1904-1906

1904 - 1906

Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1905-06

1905 - 1906

In his representation of Gertrude Stein
cezanne) life of apples
Picasso was inspired by cezanne

Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907

1907

More colour than normally shown title from Andre Salmon, instrumental in having this work exhibited in 1916. It didn’t get much attention then.
Special relationship of form BUT something further than an asthetic choice when choosing something from outside your culture.
Less than 1/10th of the continent had been colonized befor 1875 and by 1895 there was only 1/10th left that had not been colonized. Context of abolition of slavery in 1890. Reference to nature without trappings of clothing appropriation of African masks onto 3 of the 5 african bodies there is an appropriation which is precivilized
Primitivism legitimate a colonial project centered around making African nations more civilized.

Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907

1907

Less than 1/10th Africa colinized before 1875 and by 1895 only 1/10th not colonized
5 female nudes strongly reminiscent of academic procedures, transformed through allusions to Iberian =, African and Oceanis art
Iberian forces of two central figures ally them with Spanish prehistoric past and identify Picasso as seperte and against French classical trdition, signalled by focus on female nude
Brothel = lack of freedom – at the same time by exaggerating their sexual display, turn attention to he world outside the frame, our space
Assumptions about the African female spilled over to European prostitutes. Late 19th century, categorization of biological determinants of criminal behavior
Sex and syphilis of European prostitute seen as regression to the condition of sexualized African female.
Picasso identifies prostitute as a grotesque other, yet identifies own avante-garde status as a self-stylized primitive overturning European values that identify primitive with degenerate

Braque, Houses at L'Estaque, 1908

1908

Braque, Candlestick and Playing Cards, 1909-1910

1909 - 1910

Picasso, Woman's Head, 1909

1909

Here you see the translation to three dimensionality the analysis of form and notion of breaking down form and piecing it back together. When shown in sculpture the subject matter is far more recognizable. Takes the technique of modeling and casting. Arguably the techniques used are then traditional but it is the interrogation of space constituted across traditional materials.

Picasso, Portrait of Kahnweiler, 1910

1910

Synthetic Cubism

Picasso, guitar sheet music and wine class, 1912

1912

To some extent we can still see an analysis of form and breaking down of form
Actual piece of newspaper, music score, and wallpaper used to stand in for what we expect literally being.

Braque, Fruit dish and glass, 1912

1912

Picasso, Still Life with Chair, 1912

1912

oil paint, graphite, found materials, oil cloth, rope,

Dadaism

Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913

1913

Duchamp, Bottle Rack

1914

-Duchamp exempted from WWI because of heart defect
-No notion of the artist hand because this is machine produced
- Dadaist strategy to change context of objects that are familiar and then make them unfamiliar - making them curious and irrational
- reference "Bicycle wheel" is a parody of museum sculpture on a pedestal

Jean Arps, Untitled (Arranged According to the Laws of Chance)

1916 - 1917

-Dada
-generated works through randomness
-Final Product argues the creative act itself that is more important
-Freeing themselves from controlling production
-Works are metaphor for unpredictability of life

Duchamp, Fountain, 1917

1917

Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919

1919

Modernism

Brancusi, The Kiss, 1916

1916

Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1927

1927