Causes- economic differences, slaves, election of Lincoln. Lincoln became president! (Great emancipator).
Lincoln VS. Jefferson Davis

Lincoln became president.
Union Army (billy yank): Lincoln, Ulysses Grant (hero- winning side), George McClellan (Brilliant Failure), Andrew Johnson (president), Hayes (president after Andrew Johnson)
Confederates (Johnny Reb) : Jefferson, Robert E Lee (colonel, risks), Thomas Jackson (Stonewall), Belle Boyd (women confederate spy), Tilden (vs. Hayes in presidency)

Start: Fort Sumter -


ScFort Sumter- (Robert Anderson) SC secceeded union wanted armeries. Confederate victory

Ball Run


War went on for 4 years. Confederate win. Thomas Jackson gets nickname "stonewall"



Union Win. Only way to subdue south was to make emancipation proclamation. Released after this win!

Presidential Reconstruction


Robert E Lee surrendered. Lincoln wanted smooth reconstruction- but John Booth killed him. Andrew Johnson became president. Presidential Reconstruction! Laissaz Faire- dont get involved in human economic affair.
Needed to ratify 13th amendment- abolish all slavery!
Civil Rights Act- All people born in US were citizen (sue, own property)
Black Codes- subjugate black
Freedmans Bureau- transition from slavery to emancipation proc.
14th amendment- all citizens equal protection of laws.
Dred vs. Sandford- was now reversed. blacks ARE citizens

Radical Reconstruction


Reconstruction Acts: Divided South (expt Tn) into 5 districts. blacks could vote.
Martial Law: troops kept slaves safe
Second Reconstruction Act: troops were in charge of voting
Tenure of Office Act: limits johnsons power, couldnt take radicals out of office. (tried to fire edwin- radical)
Impeached Andrew Johnson!

Compromise of 1877


End of radical Reconstruction
Tilden won popular vs. Hayes who won electoral
Hayes became president, but had to remove troops from south

The New South


Henry Grady- talked about "New South"- not all true.
Richard Edmond- factory movement, more industrialized
South had- tobacco, iron, cotton
Still racial tension:
Civil Act of 1875: protected all citizen access to public facility
But there were redeemers: democrats, pro slavery. Mississippi (voting issue)
Redeemers made grandfather clause, jim crows laws.
Ida Wells: would not sit in Jim Crows section
Plessy V Ferguson: separate but equal

The West : The move


Stephen H Long: 98th parallel to rocky mountains, louisiana purchase.
Charles Dora Wiber: convince people to move
Frederick Turner: frontier process (savegery met civilization)
Peace Commission: pushed indians to Dakota, oklahoma, arizona
Red River War: US troops vs. Comanche Indian
Indian Appropriation Act: treat indians as individuals
Little Big Horn Battle: Custer lost fight
Wounded Knee: troops killed many indians in S. Dakota
Dawes Severality Act: Transform indians into farmers, but cant own land

Gilded Age


Named by Mark Twane
Power in governments hand
Homestead Act: public land grants to small farmers- move west
Transcontinental Railroad
Buisness men: either captain of industry or robber baron
Cornelius Vanderbuilt: steam company, grand central
Trust Creations:
John D Rockefeller: oil of NJ. Pinkerton Agents- Robber Baron
Sherman Anti Trust Act- slow growth of trusts
Herbert Spencer: Survival of fittest in business men
Tenement houses and Tammany hall control
Great Rail Road Strike and Pullman Palace Car Strike: wage reduction
Triangle Shirt Waist Company Fire: people locked in

Progressive Era- Roosevelt

1890 - 1920

Roosevelt Was President - bull moose
First Nationwide Reform movement
improve society, strengthen
The Jungle- expose bad meat
govt is a protector
constitutional amendments: women can vote, no alcohol, etc.
Paternalist nature: traditional beliefs
Jane Adams: hull house (european settlement)

Ellen Henrietta Swallow: woman admitted to MIT, home economics, NE kitchen
Feminism! revolt against formalism
Carrie Chapman Catt: President of Woman Suffrage
Emmeline Pankhurst: england, womens right to vote, Millitant movement
Alice Paul: American Millitant suffragist, constitutional amendment
Manns Act: forbid women prostitution



Grangers: helped farmers during depression, made laws:
Interstate Commerce Commision: regulate commerce
Dr. Charles Macune- Southern Alliance to help farmers
Crime of 73: ommitted silver Coin
William Bryan wanted gold
Mckinely wanted silver
NYC: irish and italians
Angel Island, San Francisco Bay: Chinese

Chinese Exclusion Act: ban chinese immigration
Geary Act: chinese must carry certificate
Gentlemens Agreement no japanese immigration
Indenture System
Immigration Act of 1924: numerical cap on immagrants, discriminatory system
Diseases: Typhus (Irish) , Cholera (Asia) , Bubonic Plague
Rayner- Harris National Quarantine Act: medical inspection



American Expansion
Alfred Traher Maham- spokesman, naval building

William Seward: move empire westward, interest in China, Japan, Korea. "OPEN DOOR POL", transcontinental road, panama canal, bought Alaska for 7mil form russians!
Clayton Bulber Treaty- US and england would share Panama Canal
John Hay- build canal! open door note
Hay Pauncefote Treaty: British gave up right to build canal across S. America.

Spanish American War


American Imperialism.
Spain owned: cuba, puerto rico, phillipines, and guam
90% of sugar form cuba went to US
Josi Marti: wanted cuban freedom
Valerano Weyler: starved cuban rebels, but rebels kept fighting
Mckinely: told spain to leave cuba alone!
Enrique Dupuy De Lome: message sent from him was intercepted
Battleship Maine n Havana: possible spanish attack on US ship, led to forceful intervention in Cuba
Teller Amendment: US can get involved without influence on cuba.
George Duey: attack on spanish in the phillipines

US involvement in Armenia


free armenians from ottoman empire
missionaries involved "white mans burden"
Frances Wilard: WCTU
Turks were born "cruel"



btwn Hawaii and New Zealand
Rights to harbor at pago pago
Islands were divided- US got Pago Pago



US wanted Naval Base
Sandford Dole: Pinnaple Business men
William McKinely: Annex Hawaii
Daniel Webster: Against annexation

Woodrow Wilson President: Progressive


Progressive Reforms
Wilson was secretary of labor
Help Poor, farmers, railroad workers and women in working
bank framework and function today
Tarrif Reform: high tarrifs hurt consumers
Underwood Simons Act: lower tarrif
16th Amendment : congress tax
Federal Reserve Act: established 12 regional reserve banks controlled by federal board
Clayton Anti Trust Act: replaced sherman, prohibited price fixing and interlocking.
Federal Trade Commission: investigate unfair business practices
Louis Bradeis: worked in supreme court, right to privacy
Adamson Act: 8 hour work for railroad people

World War 1- Wilson President

1914 - 1918

Wilson wanted neutrality. But stopped sending goods to Germany because of england
Lusitania: Catalyst that got US involved. Germany sank British Liner
Sussex- french steamer down, wanted germans to stop sinking
Wilson wanted to double army: for peace..
Zimmerman Telegram: got US into war. intercepted message btwn germany and mexico
US enters
Allies: Russia, France, Britain, US, then Italy
Military: trenches (safe), no mans land (dangerous) , guns, gas
Selective Service Act: US army growth
Austria and hungry divided
Fourteen Points: 14 requirements wilson said was needed for peace
League of nations: all signed, but wilson did not like article 10

Woman Cant Vote: Progressive Era


19th Amendment

Civil Rights Movement: Roaring 20's

1921 - 1929

President: Warren Harding (tax cuts) , C Coolidge, Herbert Hoover
Economic Boom! Cars- henry ford
Harlem Renaissance: African American Appreciation, Jazz, Porgy and Bess Broadway performance
E Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda: side of paradise novel, celeb couple
Prohibition: 18th amendment
Speakeasies, Flappers

Great Depression

1929 - 1940

Herbert Hoover President 1928- optimistic
stock market investment
Black Thursday: people began to dumb stocks
Black Tuesday: Start of crash
Franklin Roosevelt: 1933, used radio
New Deal: immediate relief, brain trust
Francis Perkins was the only women in the brain trust
National Bank Day: Bank inspections
Acts: AAA: help farmers, stabilize prices
CCC: army- environmental conservation
TVA: Build damns and powerplants in tennessee and bring electricity to 7 states. questionable
NIRA: stimulate production and competition with codes

Second New Deal: fundemental reform
Oponents of FDR: Father Charles Cauhglin (radio listeners), Huey Long 'king fish' (Share Wealth Society, help poor)
WPA: economic relief and reform, made projects so people work
Wagner Act: workers can unionize and bargain with management
Social Security: insurance for the old
Nye Committee: manufacturers got us in war
Neutrality Acts 1935: no shipment of weapons to belligerent nations
Second Neutrality: no loans to belligerent nations
Third Neutrality: US citizens can not travel over sea during war

World War 2

1939 - 1945

imperial Japan was expanding, so we stopped selling goods to them, so japan attacked pearl harbor.
americans began to recycle
Rosie the riveter
FDR: forget new deal and focus on war
If you were japanese, you went to internment camps, lost everything
After Roosevelt died, Harry Truman became President
Harry S Truman- bombing on hiroshima and nagasaki
Pots Damn Declaration: Truman and Stalin/ Alltle said to japan surrender or there will be consequences.
US had atomic bomb
US was in better ecnomic standing

Vietnam War

1945 - 1975

long and expensive
Ho Chi Minh: communist, vietnman independent
Vietnam: seperate 17th parallel
US prevent free election in Vietnam so Ho minh would lose
JFK supported Ngo Dinh Diem (anti communist of South Vietnam)
North Vietnam Fire on Gulf Of Tonkin (Americans)
How involved should Johnson get us?
North Vietnam fire on American Airbase in South Vietnam- All out war!
North Korea launched military strike on TET HOLIDAY, on 39 different US airbases.
Richard Nixon: silent majority, USA would slowely withdraw. advocated detente (release of tension)
My Lai Incident: William Calley killed/ raped many innocents
North and South Korea became communist: US gained little!

Cold War

1947 - 1960

Truman Doctrine: containment
Marshall Plan: George Marshall made economic recovery plan to help torn nations after WWII
Germany was divided into 4 parts: British, France, Russia, and USA was helping West germany, Soviets got mad and built blockade
NATO was created to cordinate defense in w. europe (attack on england is an attack on all)
China: Chaing Kai Shek (nationalist- republic of china) vs. Mao Tse- Tung (communist- peoples republic)
Korea: North- Kim II Sung (communist) vs. South: Syngman Rhee (dictator)
McCarthur ordered US troops to push back north koreans from south.
North Korea and China: defeat US
Kitchen debate: Nixon vs. Kruschev in the American National Exhibition
Executive Order: truman abolished segregation in armed forces

Civil Rights: Feminine Mystique

1955 - 1965

Betty Freidan: women lost identity: vitims of "false belief system"
feminine look: would do chemo therapy
President Commission on women status: JFK
Equal Pay Act 1963: women and men employment
Civil Rights Act 1964: Howard Smith: no discrimination on sex
EEOC: equal employment opportunity commission: created so Civil rights at 1964 was followed

Civil Rights: Truman... EIsenhower.. JFK.. Lyndon Johnson

1955 - 1965

Brown V Board: black girl go to white school. Over turned Plessy v Ferguson
Central Highschool, Arkansas: Governor encouraged riots against integration, President Eisenhower intervened
Montgommery Bus Boycott: Rosa Parks did not give up her seat
Montgommery improvement Association (MIA): transportation for blacks, president was MLK
Civil Rights Act 1957: civil rights commission, black could vote
SIt ins: black kids arrested
Freedom Rides: tested supreme court effectiveness on no public segregation
Eugene "Bull" Conor: Psycho police
So John F Kennedy created civil rights bill because of chaos
Lee Oswald assassinated JFK
Lyndon Johnson became president - pushed for a new civil rights bill
Civil Rights bill of 1964: no discrimination in public, suit against states who did discriminate, more equal opportunities in work.
Voting Act of 1965: alabama and mississippi response, end in literacy test for voting
Violence in Selma: few registered voters, problems errupted.
Civil Rights of 1968: no descrimination in house renting