AP European History


Babylonian Captivity (Avignon Papacy)

1308 - 1377

Period during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, France rather than Rome.

Great Schism

1378 - 1415

Also known as the Three Pope Controversy.
Two men claimed simultaneously to be Pope.
Ended by the Council of Constance.
It hurt the reputation of the Church and the Papacy.

Split of Christianity


Christians had split into Orthodox or Greek in the East, and Latin or Roman Christians in the West.

Council of Pisa


Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

John Huss was burned at the stake.
Ended the Great Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and XXIII and electing Martin V.

Time Periods

High Middle Ages

1000 - 1350

Saw the creation of:
*Politico-military feudalism
*Agricultural manorialism
*Construction of castles and cathedrals
*Initiation of the Crusades
*Cut short by the Black Death.


1300 - 1550


Late Middle Ages

1350 - 1450

Early Modern Europe

1450 - 1650

Wars and Battles

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Between Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England.
For control of French throne.
Primarily a dynastic conflict.
Gave rise to French and English nationalism.
French victory, and therefore, the House of Valois maintained the French throne.
War of Attrition.
English longbows triumphed over French crossbows.

1. England lost all of its continental possessions.
2. Decline in population.
3. Increased taxation and summoning of Parliament due to the need for money in England.
4. Rise of nationalism in both kingdoms.

War of the Roses

1450 - 1485

Lancastrians vs. Yorkists.
Resulted in the creation of the Tudor dynasty after Lancastrian victory.

Fall of Constantinople


Caused the Ottomans to remain a threat of the Christendom.


  1. Removal of Jews and Moorish influence from Spain.
  2. Limpieza de Sangre- "Purity of Blood"