Period during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, France rather than Rome.
Also known as the Three Pope Controversy.
Two men claimed simultaneously to be Pope.
Ended by the Council of Constance.
It hurt the reputation of the Church and the Papacy.
Christians had split into Orthodox or Greek in the East, and Latin or Roman Christians in the West.
John Huss was burned at the stake.
Ended the Great Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and XXIII and electing Martin V.
Saw the creation of:
*Construction of castles and cathedrals
*Initiation of the Crusades
*Cut short by the Black Death.
Between Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England.
For control of French throne.
Primarily a dynastic conflict.
Gave rise to French and English nationalism.
French victory, and therefore, the House of Valois maintained the French throne.
War of Attrition.
English longbows triumphed over French crossbows.
1. England lost all of its continental possessions.
2. Decline in population.
3. Increased taxation and summoning of Parliament due to the need for money in England.
4. Rise of nationalism in both kingdoms.
Lancastrians vs. Yorkists.
Resulted in the creation of the Tudor dynasty after Lancastrian victory.
Caused the Ottomans to remain a threat of the Christendom.