Civil Rights

The United States has always been a standardized model for freedom for the rest of the world. However, to whom did these freedoms apply to, and to which extent? Take a journey as we discover how African Americans gained their civil rights during the 20th Century through peaceful (and not so peaceful) protesting and fierce judicial court rulings.

Executive Orders

Order 9981

July 26, 1948

President Truman signed the executive order 9981, which allowed equal opportunity and treatment to all persons in the military, regardless of race, nationality, or religion.

24th Amendment Passed

January 23 1964

Abolished poll taxes (made voting difficult for blacks in the South)

Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964

President Lyndon Johnson signed this act, which banned "racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public, including theaters, hospitals, and restaurants."

Voting Right of 1965

September 24, 1965

Made voting registration for blacks easier and more efficient.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

April 11 1968

Prohibited the discrimination in sale, rental, and financing of a house due to race.

Protests

Rosa Parks Refuses To Move

December 1, 1955

Rosa Parks was asked to give up her seat in Montgomery, Alabama. She was sitting in the "white only" area and was promptly arrested when she refused.

"I'm tired of being treated like a second-class citizen" -Rosa Parks

Montgomery Bus Boycott

december 1, 1955 - december 20, 1956

Sparked by Rosa Parks, this motion was led by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against desegregation and for Civil Rights

Formation of the SNCC

April 15 1960

The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was formed through college sit ins (where blacks would refuse to get up when they were denied service in diners).

Freedom Riders

May 4 1961

Freedom Riders would go on buses to protest segregation.

March on Washington/ "I Have A Dream" Speech

August 28 1963

"...The life of the colored American is still sadly crippled by the manacle of segregation and the chains of discrimination" - Martin Luther King Jr

Murder of Malcolm X

February 21 1964

Huge supported of black separatism, a change of opinion led to his death through a shot by the Black Muslim Group.

"I Have Been To The Mountaintop" Speech

April 3, 1968

"And so I'm happy tonight; I'm not worried about anything; I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord." -Martin Luther King Jr. His last speech.

MLK Jr. Assassinated

April 4, 1968

Killed in his balcony at a hotel. Drove the cause even further, MLK acting as a martyr for integration.

Court Rulings and Hearings

Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka Kansas

May 17, 1954

Ruled that the segregation of public schools was not constitutional

Little Rock Nine Crisis

September 4, 1957

An effect of the Brown v. Board of Education. Arkansas governor would not allow for these nine black students to attend Little Rock High School. This urged Eisenhower to intervene through troops to allow the students admission.

Martin Luther King Jr. Arrested

April 16 1963


This caused for civil rights to become a giant morality question

Swann v. Charlotee-Mecklenburg County Board Of Education

April 20, 1971

The ruling held the Constitutional mandate to desegregate public schools and that all-white and all-black schools must not be produced from anti-integregation policies. Busing public school students was also a good way to support integration