DBQ Helpful, important events
President Truman issues an executive order outlawing segregation in the U.S. military.
Reason: Possibly help with analysis on American image especially when Vietnam starts.
This would be limited to 1972 and I know this is not from the civil rights movement, but I feel it is very important to consider with help toward the affect of the movement on America's image and the war's affect on the alteration of the civil rights movement.
Rosa Parks is jailed for refusing to move to the back of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. The Montgomery Bus boycott follows, and the bus segregation ordinance is declared unconstitutional.
Reason: This is an example of a peaceful protest that was successful and could be used to show the alteration of the movement over the years.
The African nation of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom and Egypt. As numbers of African diplomats in segregated Washington, D.C. increases, so does pressure for equal treatment for all people of African descent.
Reason: Still segregated America affects its foreign image through the eyes of other countries. Could be used as a reason that the movement got more violent, for quicker reform due to outside pressure or how the peaceful/violent demonstrations made America look.
Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus uses the National Guard to block nine black students from attending Little Rock Central High School. Following a court order, President Eisenhower sends in federal troops to allow the black students to enter the school.
Reason: Could be used to help analyze social tensions or cohesion in America either with or against the civil rights movement. Violence from resistance could have also caused the alteration of the movement.
Malcolm X first appears on the national scene in a news segment called, “The Hate That Hate Produced.” He publicly breaks with Martin Luther King’s peaceful resistance movement and calls for economic and political empowerment of African Americans by any means necessary.
Reason: This shows the alteration of the civil rights movement from peaceful to more violent as well as what they want. Now economic is part of the reason to fight than just political.
March on Birmingham- Extremely segregated Birmingham, Alabama sees massive protests march. Police Chief Bull Connor uses dogs and fire hoses against student marchers. Martin Luther King is arrested and Jailed- he writes his famous, “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”
Reason: This again shows the shifting from peaceful to more aggressive demonstrations and tares more at any national social cohesion left.
Race Riots in NYC; Elizabeth NJ; Jersey City, NJ; and Philadelphia, PA
Reason: This riots move up North bring support and fear. With that, this change in location and protests, could have either made the movement increase or decrease social cohesion.
Malcolm X is assassinated. Malcolm X, a longtime minister of the Nation of Islam, had rejected Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s policies of non-violence. He preached black pride and economic self-reliance for blacks. He eventually became a Muslim and broke with Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad.
Reason: This assassination could be used with its affect on the movement and affect on the social image.
Black Panther Party for Self-Defense formed.
Reason: This and black power brought a much more violent scene to the civil rights movement and with that comes affects on America' image and social cohesion. This violence brings lots of fear either almost bringing society together or apart.
Race Riots in Newark, NJ and Detroit, MI
Reason: Again, more violence and in Northern states, not it the stereotypical assumed southern states. Alteration of the movement and affects on cohesion and image.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Reason: MLK was a huge part of the civil rights movement and his death had many serious impacts on not just the movement, but the nation. Though a tragic incident, it could be analyzed as either bringing the people together on the lost of a great man and/or partly separating due to mostly fear.