Christianization 600AD-1250AD


The Avars

557 - 800
  • 626 an Avar army besieges Constantinople but fails to capture it

The Khazars

600 AD - 970 AD

-Turkic-speaking people
- 732AD Constantine V marries a Khazar princess
- c. 800 AD conversion to Judaism

Cyril and Methodius

825 AD - 885 AD
  • 860-861 embassy sent to Khazars
  • 862 sent to Moravia
  • 867 went to Rome -870 Methodius arrested by Germans
  • translated Bible to slavic and created the slavic liturgy
  • invented a script for the Slavs

Boris I

852 AD - 889 AD
  • retired in 889AD, died in 907 AD 865 Khan Boris baptized in Constantinople, Michael III his godfather 865 rebellion in Bulgaria 866 Khan Boris requests patriarch from Pope Nicholas 866 (November) Pope Nicholas sends letter, missionaries 869 New pope Hadrian II stalls on question of archbishop 870 Council in Constantinople gives archbishop to Bulgaria 886 Disciples of Methodius arrive in Bulgaria
  • credited with the Christianization of Bulgaria

King Alfred

871 - 899
  • made treaty with Vikings which made them be baptized in England
  • King of Wessex
  • sons+ grandsons retook England creating some of todays modern boundaries


  • Hungarians who enter western Europe
  • language is in the Finno- Ugric family (not Slavic of Germanic)

Founding of Cluny

  • independent of anyone's influence but the pope
  • famous for being non-political and pure and monastic
  • created the Order of Cluny

Conversion of Duke Wenceslas of Bohemia

920 - 929

St. Wenceslas

921 - 935
  • murdered by his brother Boleslav I on Easter Sunday at the age of 19
  • made a saint because of martyrdom?

Ibn Fadlan

  • embassy from the Caliph of Baghdad to the Bulgars north of the Black Sea

Harold Bluetooth

958 - 987
  • Christian ruler of Denmark
  • Runestones from Jelling, Denmark, mid-10th c., erected by Kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth

Baptism of Prince Mieszko of Poland



  • Founded by Otto I, originally a monastery to Christianize Prussia, Russia and Northeast Europe

Olaf Tryggvason

995 - 999

• exiled as a child to Russia
• married to a Wend, fought for German Otto III
• raided in Ireland
• met a monk who converted him to Christianity
• brought back to Norway as king
• disappeared in sea-battle

Wulfstan Bishop of London/Archbishop of York

996 - 1023
  • law codes " Cannons of Edgar" written 1005-1008
  • " Sermon to the English" written 1009

Conversion of King Stephen of Hungary

997 - 1038

Bishop Adalbert of Prague Martyred

  • bishop from 982-995
  • from a Noble Bohemian family
  • took his name from the archbishop of Magdeburg
  • did not get along with Boleslav I went to Italy went back left again sent to Poland tries to go to Pomerania killed by barbarians
  • martyred in Prussia his remains taken to Gneizno

Pope Leo IX

1049 - 1054
  • Papal reform of the church - simony and celibacy of the clergy

The Great Schism


Key Players: Pope Leo IX, Cardinal Humbert, Patriarch Michael Keroularios
- 1052 all western churches in Constantinople shut down

Seljuk Turk take over

  • took over Baghdad some of the holy land and much of the Byzantine Empire

Investiture Controversy

1075 - 1122
  • a member of the clergy receiving their office by shady or "un-catholic" means; ie. bribes, nepotism, etc.

Adam of Bremen

1075 - 1080
  • Germany, Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum (Deeds of Bishops of the Hamburg Church), written 1075-1080's
  • Uppsala, talked about by Adam of Bremen
  • pagan temple
  • home of Odin or Freyr

The First Crusade

1095 - 1099
  • Crusade literally means "taking the cross" - an armed pilgrimage

Council At Clermont

  • Pope Urban II gives a speech calling for the first crusade and the destruction of the vile Muslims

Russian Primary Chronicle


-written c. 1100 AD

Divini Dispensatione II

April 11, 1147
  • Pope Eugenius III speaks of the crusades against the Slavs, mentions the crusades in holy land and Spain
  • says those who die in crusades are given holy dispensation of their sins

Teutonic Knights


1234 - Teutonic Knights arrive in the Baltic
1290s - Teutonic Order converts all of Livonia
1410 - Teutonic Order defeated by Lithuanians, Russians, Poles, Tatars, Czechs

Albert Bishop of Riga

1199 - 1229

1201 founding of Riga
1202 founding of the Fratres Militiae Christi ("Brothers of the Army of Christ", often called in English "Swordbrothers")
1225 conflict between bishop and Fratres over territory, mediated by papal envoy
1229 Albert dies, controversy over successor