Ap European History

Main Events

Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376
  • Philip the Fair of France forced popes to move to Avignon
  • Left Rome poverty stricken, no pope = no tourists

100 Year War

1337 - 1453
  • Started over who has control over the French Throne and Aquitaine
  • Between France and England
  • Used propaganda
  • Raised taxes
  • Joan of Arc lead France in the turning point battle in the war
  • Grave population loss
  • Increased nationalism
  • Huge debt
  • More jobs available = higher wages
  • More resources available

Black Death

1348 - 1350
  • Bubonic plague
  • Came from Crimea on boats
  • Spread because of poverty, poor sanitary conditions and poor hygiene
  • Used Jews as scapegoats
  • Massive population loss
  • Increase in pessimism
  • Less people = cleaner cities, more jobs, higher wages, more resources

Great Schism

1378 - 1417
  • Italian Urban VI was voted to be pope - France didn't approve and elected Clement VII
  • Powers of Europe had to decide between Urban and Clement
  • Weakened the religious faith in many
  • Brought the Church leadership into a large dispute
  • Lead to the conciliar movement

Clock invented

1400 - 1420
  • Mechanical clocks and precise measurement of time contributed to the development of a conception of the universe in measurable, quantitative terms.

Concilour movement

1400 - 1500
  • The Church Needed Reform
  • Wanted separation between church and state
  • Christians read the Bible themselves

Moveable type created

1455 - 1456
  • Printing made government and Church propaganda much more practical
  • Created an invisible “public” of readers
  • Stimulated literacy among laypeople.
  • Reinforced national loyalties

Colombian exchange

1492 - 1600
  • Exchange between Europe and the Native Americans in the Americas
  • Mainly biosocial trade: Disease, animals, plants, slaves, etc
  • Brought new ideas, food and disease to Europe

Diet of Worms

1521 - 1522
  • Charles V called a general council to discuss Martin Luther and the Protestant reformation
  • They felt that Martin Luther was a threat and brought him to renounce his ways
  • Luther became an outlaw, all of his works were banned

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563
  • Issued rules to eliminate the abuses of the Church
  • Improve quality of priests
  • Clarify Church teachings that had been criticized by the Protestants
  • Created new rules for the clergy
  • Played key role in revitalizing the Catholic Church in Europe

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 - 1573
  • Henry of Navarre was supposed to marry the Kings sister in attempt to bring together the Catholics and Protestants
  • Catholics attacked the protestants = spread to country side
  • Lead to war of the 3 Henrys
  • Edict of Nantes was written

30 years war

1618 - 1843
  • Fought in the HRE
  • Between Catholics and Protestants
  • 4 phases:
  • Bohemian (Bad)
  • Dutch (Dogs)
  • Swedish (Smell)
  • French (Food)
  • Peace of Westphalia:
  • Recognized 300 princes' independence
  • France receives land
  • Catholics, Luthers and Calvinists allowed in the HRE
  • Destroyed German commerce, agriculture and created inflation

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794
  • Anyone who opposed the French Revolution was killed
  • Lead by the Committee of public safety
  • Killed by the popular guillotine

People

Medici

1389 - 1464
  • Richest family in Italy
  • Large patrons for the arts

Charles VIII (France)

1422 - 1461
  • Created first permanent royal army
  • Set up new taxes on salt and land
  • Allowed increased influence in his bureaucracy from middle-class men.
  • Publicized his right to appoint bishops in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

Botticelli

1444 - 1510
  • Italian Renaissance painter
  • painted Mythological subjects instead of religious ones

Leonardo Di Vinci

1452 - 1519
  • Italian renaissance artist (Mona Lisa, Last Supper)
  • Famous for the way he used light
  • Experiments with perspective

Eramus

1466 - 1536
  • Dutch humanist
  • Changed how Renaissance people behaved
  • Expert in the Bible and Greek language
  • Believed all people should read the Bible
  • Key reform in the Church was education

Machievlli

1469 - 1527
  • Wrote the Prince
  • Father of modern political science
  • Influenced the behavior of many people

Michaelangelo

1475 - 1564
  • Italian Renaissance artist (Sistine Chapel, State of Davis)
  • Inspired others to depict death and suffering
  • Gave christian faith a concept of what God looked like

Castiglione

1478 - 1529
  • Italian Renaissance writer
  • Wrote the Courtier:

Sir Thomas More

1478 - 1535
  • English Humanist
  • Wrote Utopia
  • Inspired others to write a particular genre of futuristic and idealistic writing about society
  • Argued that reform of social institutions could reduce or eliminate corruption and war

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546
  • Translated Bible to German
  • Denied authority of Pope and Infallibility of a general council
  • Had 4 'Questions'
  • Faith alone serves a person
  • Who has the authority
  • What is the Church
  • What is the highest form of religion
  • Helped reform the Church

Rapheal

1483 - 1520
  • Italian painter, architect, designer
  • Painted real life and emotions (The Virgin, School of Athens)
  • Changed the way people look at art

Henry VIII

1491 - 1547
  • King of England
  • Married multiple times
  • Separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church
  • created act of supremacy: became the only head of the Church of England
  • Reformation started from his emotional life

Charles V

1500 - 1558
  • HRE
  • Pushed for Council of Trent
  • Oversaw Spanish colonization of America
  • Helped Counter-Reformation with Council of Trent

John Calvin

1509 - 1564
  • Created Calvinism
  • Great believer in education
  • Believed in Predetermination - God had a plan for everyone and whether or not someone is going to hell or not
  • Anti-indulgence

Montaigne

1533 - 1592

-Wrote the Essay
- Thought as the father of modern skepticism

Philip II

1554 - 1598
  • Lord of the 17 provinces in the Netherlands
  • Catholic
  • Upheld Counter Reformation
  • Supported Spanish inquisition
  • Authorized Spanish Armada to attack England via Netherlands = lost

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603
  • Choose middle course between Christian and Puritan extremes
  • Insisted on dignity in the Church and other in the land
  • Didn't care which religion her people were

Shakespeasre

1564 - 1616
  • English play write, poet and actor
  • Wrote mainly about glorifying English history
  • Had excelled language skills

Richelieu

1585 - 1642
  • Roman Catholic
  • French
  • King Louis XIII's chief minister
  • Wanted France to dominate power
  • Wanted to destroy Hapsburg rule around France
  • Lessened power of nobility = more power for the King

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658
  • English military and political leader
  • Lord Protector of the common wealth of Scotland and Ireland
  • Divided England into 12 military districts
  • Religious toleration practiced

Dutch East India Company

1602 - 1798
  • Traveled East
  • Considered first multi-nation corporation

Charles I

1625 - 1649
  • Believed in divine right
  • Whenever he got angry with Parliament he would dissolve it = Parliament didn't trust him (especially with an army)
  • Levied taxes without Parliaments consent
  • Forced middle class into loand
  • Helped cause the English Civil War: Who had the sovereignty, the Parliament or the King?

John Locke

1632 - 1704
  • English philosopher
  • Wrote Second Treaties of Civil Government: civil government set up to protect liberty and property

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715
  • "Sun King"
  • Ruled with absolutist monarchy
  • Built palace of Versailles
  • Increased military taxation
  • Revocted Edict of Nantes -Supported the arts
  • Expanded borders
  • Set an example of real autocratic king

Puritans

1700 - 1800
  • Calvinists
  • Hard workers
  • Wanted to purify Anglican Church