Untitled timeline

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First Zionist Congress

Jan 1897 - Dec 1897

Addressed the need and movement towards building a Jewish homeland and made it a main priority

First Secret Agreement

1915 - 1916

Between Henry McMahon (GB) and Sharif Husayn, GB promises to support and independent arab nation if the arabs support GB in the war, Husayn would gain control over most of the Arabian peninsula south of Turkey and GB would control Iraq and Lebanon

Second Secret Agreement

Jan 1916 - Dec 1916

Sykes Picot Agreement: between GB and France, fallen Ottoman Empire would be divided between European nations, French would rule Lebanon and Syria, while GB would take Iraq and Palestine and general control over Arabian Peninsula

Third Secret Agreement

Jan 1917 - Dec 1917

Balfour Declaration: Between GB and Lord Rothschild where GB says that they would like to see and support the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, but made no promises

San Remo Conference

Jan 1920 - Dec 1920

GB gains Iraq and Palestine and France takes Syria and Lebanon

General Syrian Congress

March 1920 - April 1920

Proclaimed Faysal as the monarch of Syria but was ignored by the French

Cairo Conference

Jan 1921 - Dec 1921

GB gives Iraq a fake independence where as the "elected" ruler, Faysal, was only a figure head to British military rule

Sharis Husayn Overthrown

Jan 1925 - Dec 1925

Overthrown by ribal Abd al-Aziz who had British support, religious zeal, and just overall better organization

Partition of Palestine

Jan 1937 - Dec 1937

British attempt to split Palestine basically down the middle and give half to the Palestinian Arabs and half to the Jewish Zionists, both opposed this plan

Whie Paper

Jan 1939 - Dec 1939

GB just wants to gain relations with Arab nations with the impending gloom of WWII so this plan would limit Jewish immigration for 5 years and after that Palestinians could set limits and after 10 years the continuance of British control in Palestine would be discussed, Zionists hated this

UN Votes on Partition Plan

Jan 1947 - Dec 1947

Would allow for British troops to withdraw from Middle East

Creation of Israel

Jan 1948 - Dec 1948

The Independent State of Israel is birthed

First Arab-Israeli War

May 1948 - June 1948

Surrounding Arab states and Palestinian Arabs did not recognize Israel and wanted to invade but lost because of the backing Israel had and Israel wins and also gains new lands not given to them by the UN

King Faruk Ousted

Jan 1952 - Feb 1952

Many Arabs directly blamed King Faruk for the loss of the first war and the lack of effort to establish an independent Arab state

Nasser Moves to Improve Eastern Relations

feb 1952 - dec 1955

Nasser moves to improve relations with countries to the east like Chine and USSR, the US does no like this and withdraws from the Aswan Damn project which is extremely insulting to Nasser

Suez Canal Nationalized by Nasser

Jan 1956 - Feb 1956

The Suez Canal had always been independent of any state and operated such, but because Nasser was insulted by the US withdraw of support in the Aswan Damn project he took over the canal and limited/cut off foreign use

Second Arab-Israeli War

March 1956 - Dec 1956

The Israelis won again and the result was a resistance to pro-western rule and a rise in pro-Nasser forces and rule, also led to the USSR supporting the Aswan Damn project

Iraqi Monarchy Overthrown

Jan 1958 - Feb 1958

Conservative Hashimite monarchy overthrown by military junta

US Marines Intervene in Lebanese Civil War

Jan 1958 - Dec 1958

US Marines intervene in Lebanese Civil War between pro-Nasser and anti- Nasser forces

Ba'ath Party Takes Control of Iraq

feb 1958 - dec 1958

Ba'ath party takes control of Iraq and supports Arab unity and socialism

Third Arab-Israeli War

June 1967 - July 1967

Nasser had asked UN forces to leave the Straits of Tiran which of course Israel hated, Only lasted six days, and Israel won within the first 6 hours with an unexpected air strike which crippled Egypt and this was a huge loss, Israel took over the entire Gaza strip, thousands of displaced Palestinians now lived in refugee camps where the PLO originated (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

Fourth Arab-Israeli War

October 1973 - November 1973

Sadat (Nasser's successor) launched this attack after years of planning to take back Egyptian territory this war was also a clashing of Soviet and US troops, main fighting in Golan Heights, finally a cease fire was reached and both sides claimed military victory, at this point Sadat gets pretty serious about peace talks and moving towards peace

Cyprus Is Divided

Jan 1974 - Dec 1974

Greece and Turkey both held claims to Cyprus and a bloody battle was ensuing so the UN stepped in and divided it down the middle, interestingly enough most US citizens supported Greece getting the territory even though the government was friendly with Turkey, this caused relations with Turkey to become slightly strained

Sadat Visits Israel

Jan 1977 - Dec 1977

This is the first instance of and Arab leader acknowledging and visiting the Israeli nation, he goes there in an effort to further peace talks and end conflicts

Camp David Peace Talks

September 1978 - October 1978

President Carter is directly mediating between Sadat and Begin

USSR Moved Into Afghanistan

Jan 1979 - Dec 1979

for years Afghanistan was poor and lacked industrialization or clear leadership so the USSR took the opportunity to invade and set up a pro-USSR government

Shah of Iran Overthrown

jan 1979 - dec 1979

Iran had been a strong center of the move towards westernization but corruption and greed had lead to the displeasure of many radical parties so the ruler was overthrown by a revolutionary government lead by Ruhollah Khomeini and wanted to move back towards traditional islamic values, the shah and his family fled and sought protection when Khomeini demanded that this leader and his family be handed over to stand trial for their atrocities against the people his request was denied. In return he held the US embassy staff hostage

Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel

March 1979 - April 1979

Direct result of Camp David Peace talks, the treaty provides full peace to both sides and the gradual return of the sinai peninsula to egypt, but ignores many vital issues including: palestinian self determination, israel still occupying the west bank and gaza strip, and the status of jerusalem

Suddam Hussein Invade Iran

jan 1980 - dec 1980

Suddam Hussein leader of Iraq was tired of the impending islamic revolution and decided to defuse the situation by invading Iran, while the US outwardly supported Iraq it was later determined that they were also providing aid to Iran fueling the fire because they didnt want either side to win

US Embassy Hostages Released

Jan 1981 - Feb 1981

Finally after many failed attempts to free the US Embassy hostages in Iran an agreement is reached but it is very complicated, apparently

Sadat Assassinated

October 1 1981 - October 2 1981

Because Sadat had failed to gain Palestinian national rights and ignored corruption in the government and other important things he was killed. Fortunately his successor Hosni Mubarak took a course which seemed to satisfy both sides but resulted in "cold peace"

Fifth Arab-Israeli War

jan 1982 - dec 1982

lebanon had become the main base for the PLO which israel considered a terrorist organization so it launched a full scale invasion in hopes of elimination the PLO, unfortunately the war killed mostly civilians and displaced thousands more than were already displaced, finally peacemaking organizations including the US marines stepped in and israel withdrew many of its military forces

Intifada

Jan 1987 - Dec 1987

boycott of israeli goods by palestinians this causes a bloody battle that kills 1500 more people israeli and palestinians alike

Palestine an Independent State

Jan 1988 - Dec 1988

Finally the PLO declares that Palestine (the west gaza bank) is an independent state and recognizes israel this is seen as a move towards peace and dozens of nations applaud the new state

USSR Withdraws from Afghanistan

1988 - 1989

USSR is going bankrupt and can no longer support the raging wars in the region which was a huge drainer of monetary goods to the USSR so it withdraws and leaves behind the pro-ussr government