Government Interventions for the Rights of Women, Blacks, and American Indians

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Indian Commerce Clause of the Constitution

1789

Stated, "The Congress shall have Power...to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." Essentially, this created the basis for all government regulation over American Indian trade. It positively affected tribes by trading them resources needed in their nations as well as later creating the idea that American Indian tribes are self-governing bodies.

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

1831

Court case that was brought about when the Cherokee Nation felt the Georgia state laws were infringing on their rights. This court case created tribal sovereignty, stating that American government has no jurisdiction over Indian Tribes, allowing tribes to keep their freedoms.

13 Amendment to Constitution

1865

The 13th amendment to the constitution abolished the idea of slavery or forced labor, except under circumstances of things such as penalties of crimes. Freed black slaves from oppression.

8 hour work days created

1868

Congress put an act into work that created 8 hour work days as the legal precedent. This protected women who were often subjected to 14-18 hour work days. This improved their working conditions and reduced their risk of injury due to exhaustion on the job.

14 Amendment to the Constitution

1868

The 14th amendment to the constitution made the law that anyone born in the United States or naturalized was to be considered a citizen of the US. This was important because it legally made slaves citizens.

15th Amendment to the Constitution

1870

The 15th amendment to the constitution created the idea of equal suffrage and voting rights could not be denied due to aspects of gender, race, or servitude. Allowed blacks to and other races to vote.

19th Amendment to the Constitution

1920

The 19th amendment to the constitution was the amendment that created equal suffrage for women. This gave women the right to vote.

Little Rock School Integration

1957

A school in Little Rock, Illinois was to integrate the high schools but instead brought in military to keep black students out of schools. The president sent in military forces and told the state government to stand down. Significant due to the fact that the federal government took power over state government and integrated schools.

National Historic Preservation Act

1966

The National Historic Preservation Act was an extension of the multiple American Indian reforms in the 1800's. This act made Indian tribe lands off-limits and landmarks. Preserved all American Indian lands including burial grounds.

Illinois Domestic Violence Act

1967

An act implemented in Chicago in 1967. This act created the idea of domestic disputes when calling the police. Determined that "domestic disturbance" was a term for any dispute or intrafamily violence. This especially helped women because before the act, women were often disregarded when it came to the law and violence.