On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown and General Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence under the terms of the Plan of Iguala.
The Texas Declaration of Independence was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. It was adopted at the Convention of 1836 on March 2, 1836, and formally signed the following day after errors were noted in the text.
War between U.S. and Mexico. Four campaigns: Taylor in Northern Mexico, Kearny in New Mexico, naval blockage of both coasts, and Scott’s campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the War. Terms of peace included the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million. In addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens.
The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country. The Conservatives wanted a centralist government, even a monarchy with the Church and military keeping their traditional roles and powers. This struggle erupted into a full civil war when the Liberals, then in control of the government after ousting Antonio López de Santa Anna, began to implement a series of laws designed to strip the Church and military, but especially the Church, of its rights, powers and property.
The Constitution established individual rights such as freedom of speech; freedom of conscience; freedom of the press; freedom of assembly; and the right to bear arms. It also reaffirmed the abolition of slavery, eliminated debtor prison, and eliminated all forms of cruel and unusual punishment, including the death penalty.
French army captured Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Hungary became Emperor of Mexico. In 1867, French withdrew and Maximilian is executed at Querétaro.
Juárez was controversially re-elected President in 1867 and 1871, using the office of the presidency to ensure electoral success and suppressing revolts by opponents such as Porfirio Díaz. Benito Juárez died of a heart attack in 1872 while reading a newspaper at his desk in the National Palace in Mexico City.
The period of his leadership was marked by significant internal stability, modernization, and economic growth, but was also marked by economic repression of the public.
Madero called for revolt against Díaz, and the Mexican Revolution began. Díaz was forced from office and fled the country for Spain on May 31, 1911. On July 2, 1915, after two marriages and three children, Díaz died in exile in Paris.
He was elected President on the 15th of October by almost 90 per cent of the voters, in one of Mexico´s cleanest elections.
A series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution. They culminated in a coup d'état and the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero and his vice president, José María Pino Suárez.
Huerta established a harsh military dictatorship. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson became hostile to the Huerta administration, recalled ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, and demanded Huerta step aside for democratic elections. When Huerta refused, and with the situation further exacerbated by the Tampico Affair, President Wilson landed U.S. troops to occupy Mexico's most important seaport, Veracruz.
A document drafted by Venustiano Carranza in response to the overthrow and execution of Francisco I. Madero. The document accused Huerta of restoring a dictatorship and committing treason by executing the Constitutional leader of Mexico
With Villa and Zapata on the run,Carranza had no opposition to prevent him from being elected president. In May 1917, Carranza became the constitutional President of Mexico.
Villa attempted to capture the border city of Ciudad Juarez from the Mexican Army. During the engagement, the Villistas provoked an intervention by the United States Army forces protecting the neighboring city of El Paso, Texas. The Americans routed the Villistas in what became the second largest battle of the Mexican Revolution involving the United States, and the last battle of the Border War.
Carranza set out towards Veracruz to regroup after his escape from Obregón but was betrayed and he died in Tlaxcalantongo in the Sierra Norte de Puebla mountains while being attacked by the forces of General Rodolfo Herrero, supporter of Carranza's former allies and local chieftain, on 21 May 1920 while he was sleeping.
In 1920 Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.