Mexico 1820-1920

Nataly Nguyen Period 1. 4-21-13

Main

The Siege of Guanajuato

September 28, 1810

Spanish soldiers and citizens barricaded themselves inside the massive royal granary when Father Hidalgo's army was moving towards Mexico. In Guanajuato they defended themselves valiantly, Hidalgo's mob was too large, and when the granary was breached the slaughter began.

Mexico becomes independent

September 28, 1821

Mexico declares independence from Spain after years of negotiating.

Texas becomes independent

March 3, 1836

Texas wins its independence in the Battle of San Jacinto, declaring their independence.

Juarez's presidency

1867 - 1872

He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal efforts to modernize the country.

Diaz Dictatorship

1876 - 1911

During that time, Mexico modernized, adding plantations, industry, mines and transportation infrastructure. Poor Mexicans suffered greatly, however, and conditions for the most destitute were terribly cruel. The gap between rich and poor widened greatly under Díaz, and this disparity was one of the causes of the Mexican Revolution.

Madero's Presidency

May 25, 1911 - 1913

Madero wins election to the Mexican presidency. Later killed with his brother in the Ten Tragic Days in Mexico City.

Huerta's Presisdency

1913 - 1914

Huerta assumed power after Madero’s death. He resigns in July of 1914 due to his defeat in Zacatecas by Pancho Villa.

Obregon

1920 - 1924

He oversaw massive educational reform, moderate land reform, and labor laws sponsored by the increasingly powerful Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers.

events

The Cry of Dolores

September 16, 1810

Father Miguel Hidalgo took to the pulpit in the town of Dolores and announced that he was taking up arms against the hated Spanish, therefore he invited his congregation to join him. His army grew to the thousands and went on to the gates of Mexico City. This "Cry of Dolores" marks Mexico's Independence Day.

Constitution of 1824

October 4, 1824

In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official and unique religion.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Feb. 2, 1848

forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million. In addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the loss of Texas and thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border.

Reform War

1858 - 1861

one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century.

French Occupation

1863 - 1867

The French occupy Mexico City and Napoleon III of France appoints Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico.

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

The Revolution began after the Diaz dictatorship that lasted thirty years. The act was not only essential to the evolution of human rights and democracy and Mexico, but was also significant as it was one of the first successful third world revolutions. To an extent the revolution laid the groundwork for allowing democracy to emerge from authoritarianism in other third world nations.

Ten Tragic Days

February 9, 1913 - February 18, 1913

Tragic revolts in Mexico City that resulted in the death of Madero

Plan de Guadalupe

March 25, 1913

There were seven parts to this plan which purported to remove any claim of legitimacy Huerta's government might have had, reinstated government powers into officials loyal to Madero, and announced a call for elections once peace had been restored to the country.

Constitutuon of 1917

1917

It was approved by the Constitutional Congress on February 5, 1917. It sets out social rights that display profound changes in Mexican political philosophy. It establishes the bases for a free, mandatory, education, and land reforms.

Battles

Mexican American War

1846 - 1848

The war between the United States and Mexico lasted a year and a half. American forces quickly occupied New Mexico and California, then invaded parts of Northeastern Mexico and Northwest Mexico

The Battle of Puebla

May 5, 1862

an unlikely victory by Mexican forces over French invaders in 1862. The French, who had sent an army to Mexico to collect on a debt, were advancing on the city of Puebla. The French army was massive and well-trained, but heroic Mexicans stopped them in their tracks, led in part by a dashing young General named Porfirio Diaz.

The Battle of Zapatecas

June 23, 1914

Mexican usurper President Victoriano Huerta sends his best troops to defend the city and railway junction at Zacatecas in a desperate effort to keep rebels out of the city. Ignoring orders from supposed rebel leader Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa attacks the town. Villa's resounding victory cleared the path to Mexico City and begins the downfall of Huerta.

The Battle of Celaya

April 6, 1915 - April 16, 1915

Alvaro Obregon and Pancho Villa collided, armed with machine guns and trained infantry. The two fought it out for ten days and Villa was defeated.

Pancho Villa attacks the U.S.

March 9, 1916

Pancho Villa led his army across the border and attacked the town of Columbus, New Mexico, hoping to secure money and weapons. Although the raid was a failure and led to an extensive US-led manhunt for Villa, it greatly increased his reputation in Mexico.

Deaths

Maximillian execution

1867

Within a year and a half, Napoleon announced the withdrawal of French troops. Abandoned and unprotected, the emperor was captured by Mexican nationalists and sentenced to death. His execution in 1867 sent shock waves through Europe.

Zapata Assassinated

April 10, 1919

Rebel leader Emiliano Zapata was set up, betrayed and assassinated in Chinameca. Zapata had been the moral conscience of the Mexican Revolution, fighting for land and freedom for the poorest Mexicans.