China's Dynasties

Dynasties

Shang

1600 B.C - 1050 B.C

Bronze Tools and weaponry are invented
The use of chariots in battles
1200 BC- oracle bone script is used to make a Chinese calendar system

Zhou

1050 BC - 256 BC

Iron is introduced and used to make weapons and tools like the iron swords
basic forms of arithmetic are invented
acupuncture is introduced and Chinese people go deeper into the studies of the anatomy of a human

Qin

221 BC - 207 BC

220 BC- Emperor Shi Huang Di starts the building of the Great Wall
Weights were standardized
new coinage was introduced, they were circular with a square hole through the center
Writing was standardized

Han

206 BC - 220 AD

124 BC- Imperial university is established in China allowing people to go and study the Confucian classics
105 ad- paper is invented making things easier to write on and lighter like books
Civil service exams
seismograph was invented to detect earthquakes

Sui

581 AD - 618 AD

589- Sui troops invade Nanjing and force the emperor of the Chen dynasty to surrender thus uniting China once again
605- the Grand Canal is finished and connects the Huang He and Chang Jiang rivers making another trade route between the cities
Zhaozhou bridge was constructed and is the oldest stone bridge to this day

Tang

618 AD - 907 AD

657- first medical book is written and contains 833 different types of medical substances
668- China expands its influence over Korea thus expanding the Tang empire
690- Empress Wu declares herself Emperor, she was the only women in China's history to do so.
725- Yi Xiang invents the first striking clock and a pendulum type mechanism that he uses in all of his clocks

Song

960 AD - 1279 AD

1051- Woodblock printing is invented making the printing of books and texts easier, which allows peasants to buy books
1120- paper money is invented, it is the world's first type of paper currency
1250- Gunpowder is used to make advances in weaponry like bombs, grenades, and several other types of explosives.

Ming

1368 AD - 1644 AD

1405- First of Seven voyages is launched, the goal was to expand the tribute system
Massive naval fleet was built, treasure ships were more than 400 feet long and were like floating cities
Christianity and other European influences reached china and boosted the economy

Qing

1644 AD - 1911 AD

China was brought to its largest size under Qian-long (1736-1795)
New crops were introduced to agriculture like corn and sweet potatoes
Porcelain was invented through experimentation with ceramics
A new system for monitoring grain prices helped to prevent shortages

End of the Dynastic China

First Opium War

1839 - 1842

The Chinese banned opium
A small private group of British traders smuggled in opium from India, it was confiscated
British reacted and it lead to the Nanking Treaty which leased Hong Kong to Britain for 99 years

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

1853- Rebels captured Nanjing and made it their capital
British aided in the defeat of the rebels
Goal had been to form the Taiping dynasty

Jiang Jieshi

1887 - 1975

1925- Jiang takes over the Kuomintang
April 1927- Nationalist forces march into Shanghai and nearly wipe out the Communists
1928-Jiang becomes the President of the Nationalist Republic of China
1934-35- Jiang's forces were always a step behind from eliminating the communist forces

Mao Zedong

1893 - 1976

Chairman of the communist party
leader of China from 1943-1976
Brought Communism to mainland China
Created the Red Guards which went around China destroying anything that was non-Maoist
Trained Soldiers in Guerilla Warfare
October 1949- Mao gains control of China and calls it the "People's Republic of China"

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1900

peasants banded together to form the group known as I-ho ch'uan or the Boxers
Practiced rituals which they believed made them impervious to bullets
1899- Boxers were massacring Christians and Chinese Christians
May 1900- Rebellion came out of the countryside and waged in Peking(Beijing)
June 18,1900- Empress Dowager ordered all foreigners to be killed
August 14,1900- international forces took back Peking and subdued the rebellion

Long March

1934 - 1935

A 6,000 mile long journey, communists fled from the Nationalists into a set of caves in the northern part of China
Had to cross 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1961

1958- Mao proposes the Great Leap Forward which required everyone to live in communes or groups of houses
End of 1958- 26,000 communes exist, they were 15,000 acres and held 25,000+ people
only the state profited from the labor of the peasants

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1969

Mao tried to revive the interest in his ideas
Called upon youths to engage in revolutionary type warfare
created the red guards which marched throughout China forcing Mao's ways and ideas
Colleges and Schools were shut down because if you were smart then you were considered dangerous

Red Guards

1966 - 1969

Group of college and high school students that marched through China and destroyed buildings, and any other things that did not represent Maoist ways
20-30 million students became red guards

Tiananmen Square

1989 - June 1989

Students that had studied abroad had come back to China and sparked a revolution
They declared that China should become a democracy
100,000 students occupied Tiananmen Square
Deng declared Martial law and had soldiers storm the square injuring and killing hundreds