Celtic Frontier Kings

Key Events

Norman Conquest

01/01/1066 - 12/01/1066

Conquest of Wales

1081 - 1094

By 1094 most of Wales under Control

Doomsday Book

1085 - 1086

Carlisle as a base

1092 - 1093

1092- By william Rufus. Start of consolidation of Far North

Battle of Alnick (1)

10/13/1093 - 10/14/1093

Malcom III ambushed and killed alongside his eldest son Edgar by Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumbria whose lands he had earlier destroyed

David becomes Earl of Huntingdon

1113 - 1114

By marriage to Maud de Senlis

The Anarchy

1135 - 1153

Civil war Stephen versus Matilda

Battle of the Standard

06/22/1138 - 06/23/1138

English forces repelled a Scottish army, took place on 22 August 1138 on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire. The Scottish forces were led by King David I of Scotland. The English were commanded by William of Aumale.

Laudabilitier

01/01/1155 - 12/01/1155

Papal bull apparently given by Adrian IV to Henry II. Only published in Gerlad of Wales Expugnatio HIbernica in 1189

Henry II in Wales (I)

1156 - 1157

Securing of Wales

1163 - 1164

Henry II shows true force, forcing homages from the two most powerful princes of Wales, Rhys ap Gruffydd and Owain Gwynedd.

Conquest of Ireland

1169 - 1172

Thomas Becket killed

1169 - 1170

December 29, 1170, Canterbury

Capture of William I Scotland

1174 - 1175

battle of Alnwick 13th July 1174

Treaty of Falaise

12/01/1174 - 12/25/1174

An agreement made in December 1174 between the captive William I, King of Scots, and the English King Henry II.

Richard I captured returning from crusade

1192 - 1194

Crusades: King Richard I was captured by Austrian Duke Leopold V, Duke of Austria while returning from the Holy Land. Richard was ransomed and returned to England.

King John excommunicated

01/01/1209 - 12/01/1209

Magna Carta

1214 - 1215

Sources

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

1066 - 1154

Peterborough chronicle that ends 1154

brut y tywysogion

1066 - 1215

Welsh chronicle

Annals of Inisfallen

1066 - 1215

Irish Chronicle

William Newburgh- History of English Affairs

1066 - 1198

History of the Church of York

1066 - 1127

Hugh the Chanter

The History of the English King

1066 - 1120

William Malmesbury AD 449- 1120

completed in 1125

Life of St. Margaret

1110 - 1115

Turgot
Dates not when written!?

The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis

1114 - 1141

Historia Regum Britanniae

01/01/1136 - 12/01/1136

Geoffrey Monmouth

gesta stephani

1136 - 1166

Anonymous between. 1136x1166

History of the English

1136 - 1137

Geoffrey Gaimar

dates for when written

Relatio de Standardo

1153 - 1154

By Ailred of Rievaulx

Jordan Fantsome Chronicle

1173 - 1174

His major work is an Anglo-Norman verse chronicle of the war between Henry II of England and his son Henry the Young King and William I of Scotland in 1173–1174.

Dialogus de Scaccario, The Dialogue of the Exchequer

1179 - 1180

c.1180
by Richard FitzNeal

De Nugis Curialium

1181 - 1192

Walter Map

Perceval

1181 - 1191

Chretein de Troyes

Matter of Britain

1181x1191

Topographia Hibernica

01/01/1187 - 12/01/1187

Gerald of Wales

Expugnatio Hibernica

01/01/1189 - 12/01/1189

Gerald of Wales

Guild Merchants roll of Dublin

1190 - 1215

up to 1265

Journey Through Wales

01/01/1191 - 12/01/1191

Gerald of Wales

Description of Wales

01/01/1194 - 12/01/1194

Gerald of Wales

Roman de Fergus

1215 - 1216

Late 13th Century

The Roman de Fergus is an Arthurian romance written in Old French probably at the very beginning of the 13th century, by a very well educated author who named himself Guillaume le Clerc (William the Clerk). The main character is Fergus, the son of Soumilloit (Scottish Gaelic: Somhairle; English: Sorley or Somerled), a rich but old-fashioned farmer and a noble Arthurian woman who rises to become the best knight of King Arthur.

English Kings

William I

1066 - 1087

William II

1087 - 1100

Third son of William I

Henry I

1100 - 1135

fourth son of William I

Stephen I

1135 - 1154

The Anarchy- Civil war with Queen Matilda
Henry I's nephew
Grandson of William I

Henry II

1154 - 1189

Grandson of Henry I

Henry the Young King

1155 - 1183

Second of five sons of Henry II
Political influential for father's politics

Richard I

1189 - 1199

John I

1199 - 1216

Henry II's son
Lost duchy of Normandy

Scottish Kings

Malcolm III

1058 - 1093

wife= Queen Margaret

St. Margaret

1070 - 1093

Malcolm III's wife

Donald III

1093 - 1097

Edgar I

1097 - 1107

Son of Malcolm III

Alexander I

1107 - 1124

Son of Malcolm III

David I

1124 - 1153

Son of Malcolm III

Malcolm IV

1153 - 1165

Grandson of David I

William "The Lion" I

1165 - 1214

Grandson of David I

Rulers of Gwynedd

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

1039 - 1063

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn

1063 - 1075

Trahaern ap caradog

1075 - 1081

Gruffydd ap Cynan

1081 - 1137

Owain Gwynedd

1137 - 1170

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd

01/01/1170 - 01/12/1170

Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

1170 - 1190

Ruling upper Gwynedd till 1174

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd

1170 - 1173

Dafydd I

1170 - 1195

"The Usurper"
recognised by the English

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth

1195 - 1240

Rulers of Deubarth

Maredudd ab Owain

1063 - 1072

Rhys ab Owain

1072 - 1078

Rhys ap Tewdwr

1078 - 1093

Under English Rule

1093 - 1135

Gruffydd ap Rhys

1136 - 1137

Anarawd ap Gruffydd

1137 - 1143

Cadell ap Gruffydd

1143 - 1153

Maredudd ap Gruffydd

1153 - 1155

Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd

1155 - 1197

Gruffydd ap Rhys

1197 - 1201

Rulers of Powys

Bledynn ap Cynfyn

1063 - 1075

Cadwgan ap Bledynn

1075 - 1111

Iorwerth ap Bledynn

1075 - 1103

Owain ap Cadwgan

1111 - 1116

Maredudd ap Bleddyn

1116 - 1132

Madog ap Maredudd

1132 - 1160

Owain Cyfeillog

1160 - 1195

Powys Wenwynwyn

Gruffydd Maelor

1160 - 1191

Powys Fadog

Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor

1191 - 1236

Powys Fadog

Gwenwynwyn ab Owain

1195 - 1216

Powys Wenwynwyn

Kings of Ireland

Diarmait mac Mail na mBo

1050 - 1072

Toirdelbach Ua Briain

1072 - 1086

(with opposition)

Muirchertach UaBriain

1086 - 1119

(with opposition)

Donnall Ua Lochlainn

1119 - 1121

(with opposition)

Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair

1121 - 1156

(with opposition)

Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn

1156 - 1166

(with opposition)

Henry II

1169 - 1177

Conquest of Ireland

Prince/King John

1177 - 1216

Popes

Alexander II

1061 - 1073

St. Gregory VII

1073 - 1085

Victor III

1086 - 1087

Urban II

1088 - 1099

Paschal II

1099 - 1118

Gelasius II

1118 - 1119

Callistus II

1119 - 1124

Honorius II

1124 - 1130

Innocent II

1130 - 1143

Celestine II

1143 - 1144

Lucius II

1144 - 1145

Eugene III

1145 - 1153

Anastasius IV

1153 - 1154

Adrian IV

1154 - 1159

Laudabilitier

Alexander III

1159 - 1181

Conquest of Ireland

Lucius III

1181 - 1185

Urban III

1185 - 1187

Clement III

1187 - 1191

Gregory VIII

01/01/1187 - 06/01/1187

Celestine III

1191 - 1198

Innocent III

1198 - 1216