This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools. The transition also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. The Industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States.
Since the late 1700s steam engines have become a major source of mechanical power. The first applications were removing water from mines. In 1781 James Watt patented a steam engine that produced continuous rotative motion.
In 1779, Ludd is supposed to have broken two stocking frames in a fit of rage due to the advancement of technology. After this incident, attacks on the frames were jokingly blamed on Ludd. When the "Luddites" emerged in the 1810s, his identity was appropriated to become the folkloric character of Captain Ludd
A conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
Engels and Marx- Das Kapital
-foundation for what they believe is the basis and definition of capitalism: Attempt by the owners of production to exploit, to whatever degree possible, the labor they employ… this is how companies draw their profit and surplus value
Communism- “scientific socialism”
Marx’s called for workers everywhere to unite to create a powerful political force. Introduced a new concept “The Welfare State”- everybody should have their basics provided by the state
it's main purpose was to restore power to the aristocracy
In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, Otto Von Bismark unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin
A prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President. She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.
While the first industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.It was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany.
Bloodiest war in American history
1861- the south succeeded from the Union, immediately creating military action by the capitol
North- industrialized, South- plantations
1864- President Lincoln passes the Emancipation Proclamation, all states under Union occupation had to free their slaves immediately
13th amendment abolished slavery
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed it to have been adopted. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War.
refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded.