History of Peru

Early Civilizations

Proof of Existence

9000 BC

Ancient tools used for hunting have been found in a cave that dates back to 9,000 BC

First Civilizations

6000 BC

Artifacts have been found in the coastal provinces of Chilca and Paracas and in the highland province of Callejon de Huaylas from some of the first civilizations in Peru.

Irrigation Canals

3000 BC

Irrigation canals were used in the Zana Valley as a more efficient way to water crops.


3000 bc

Agriculture is integrated into early Peruvian's everyday life styles.

The First City in the Americas

2500 BC

Caral, the first known city in the Americas, was built in the Supe Valley.


2000 BC

An observatory was built and used to discover the seasonal changes for agricultural purposes.


2000 BC

A temple was built in the Lambayeque region with painted murals.


700 BC

Powerful civilizations begin to show signs of being more organized and united.

Paracas Culture

300 BC

The Paracas Culture emerges on the southern part of Peru's coast.


100 BC - 700

The Moche produced very fine metal work and some of the most amazing pottery.


100 BC - 700

The Nazca were known for their textiles and the Nazca lines. The Nazca lines are perfectly strait lines and symbols scraped in the desert sand.

Inca Empire

1438 - 1532

Largest Empire


The Inca Empire was the largest pre-Columbian era empire.

Conquest of Peru

Small Pox

1524 - 1526

Small pox swept across the Inca Empire killing many including the Inca leader and many heirs to the throne.

Spanish Landed


The Spanish landed in Peru.

Battle of Cajamarca


Francisco Pizarro


Francisco Pizarro and his brothers were attracted to Peru by the rumors of the power and wealth of the Inca Empire.

Spanish Settlement


Spain resettled the city of Cuzco and claimed it as their own.



Spain established Lima as the capital of the colony.

Assassination of Pizarro


Pizarro was assassinated by a rival faction fighting for control over the colonial government.

Viceroyalty of Peru


The Viceroyalty of Peru was established.

Viceroyalty of Peru

Viceroyalty of Peru

1542 - 1824





Republic of Peru

Wars of Independence

1810 - 1824

Peru's Independence


Peru becomes an independent state on July 28, 1821.

Territorial Disputes

1824 - 1884

Peru had disputes over borders with neighboring countries.

Aristocratic Republic

1884 - 1930

Democracy to Militarism

1930 - 1979

Peru was controlled by it's military instead of a president.

Democratic Restorations

1980 - present day



Fernando Belaunde Terry was elected as president of Peru.

Alberto Fujimori

1990 - 2000

Alberto Fujimori was elected into office.

Ollanto Humala

2011 - present day

Ollanto Humala was elected president.