Founded in 1834 the Zollverein, or the German customs union, stimulated trade and increased revenue for member states, but Austria was not included.
Modernization of Paris
1850 - 1870
Paris was successively modernized into a well working city with new streets, sewers, and etc. Paris led the way into re-development for European cities.
Unification of Italy
Italy became first united in 1850 with the help of Giuseppe Mazzini and Vincenzo Gilberti
1853 - 1856
In the end of this war France, Britain, and the Ottoman Empire humiliated Russia when Russia was already having enough problems.
Perry Opens Japan For Trade
The American Mathew Perry opens Japan up for trade. This is something that has rarely been done before, and it changes the world market drastically.
The Great Rebellion
1857 - 1858
The Great Rebellion is when Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British Army spread throughout northern and central India in anger because of loss of independence.
U.S. Civil War
1861 - 1865
This Civil war completely divided the whole nation. Over 600,000 thousand lives were lost, but in the end the slaves were "free".
The Russian government created the Zemstvo which was like a parliament to help modernize Russia.
This war was between the confederation of Germany, and the Prussian states. At the end of this war Prussia had gained dominance over Germany.
1870 - 1871
This war between France and Prussia created three significant changes: The formation of the German Empire, the formation of the French Third Republic, and lastly the German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine.
Assassination of Alexander II
Alexander II was assassinated causing an abrupt end to reform in Russia.
William II forced Bismarck to resign with the support of the workers.
1894 - 1895
This war between China and Japan triggered a rush for foreign concessions and protectorates in China.
Hundred Days of Reform
The Chinese government launched this to meet the foreign challenge and to Modernize China.
The U.S. had successfully taken the Philippines from Spain. Now the U.S. had a presence in Asia.
Protesters in Russia's capitals were shot down. This turned ordinary workers against the Tsar.
Annexation of Korea
Japan had annexed Korea and was now a major imperialist power in the World.
By 1910 electric streetcar systems were carrying about 6.7 billion passengers. This allowed work outside of the inner city.
First Balkan War
A war where Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria attacked the Ottoman Empire that included disputes about the end of the war between the victors that would lead to the Second Balkan War.
Second Balkan War
In the end of this war the Ottoman Empire was officially destroyed, and Albania was given up by Serbia to Austria.
Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by the Black Hand, a group from Serbia, this is considered a major event that led to the Great War.
Austria Declares War
Exactly one month after the Archduke's assassination, Austria mobilizes and declares war on Serbia starting "The Third Balkan War", or World War I.
Sinking of the Lusitania
This British ocean liner was sunk during Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare. This was not what caused America's intervention, but added to America's want to intervene.
The Battle of Verdun
France+Britain vs. Germany- This battle costs the lives of 700,000 soldiers, and was a horrifying example of trench warfare.
The Russian Revolution
Directly related to the tensions of World War I. For some Marx's socialist vision had come true.
The United States Declares War
The United States declares war on Germany. The United States would be a major help for the Triple Entente, and would turn the tide of the war.
The New Economic Policy
The NEP was a plan announced by Vladimir Lenin that was meant to recover and improve the Russian economy. This in fact did not do that.
The Dawes Plane
This plan created by the American Charles G. Dawes loaned money to Germany. Germany then could pay off debt to Britain and France, and finally Germany had to pay back the U.S. with interest, and Britain and France could pay the U.S. back.
A major part of Joseph Stalin's Five-Year Plan, collectivization forced peasants in the Soviet Union to give up their land and animals and become a part of collective farms.
The Great Depression
1929 - 1939
This is possibly the worst depression that the world has ever seen. Recovery was very slow, and the length of the depression was extensive. The depression finally ended when America entered World War II.
Death of Stalin's Wife/Great Purges
After a conversation that involved Stalin's Wife complaining to him she "coincidentally" died that same night. This would actually be a start of the Great Purges in Soviet Russia that would lead to at least 8 million dying.
The New Deal
With this New Deal president Roosevelt wanted to reform capitalism without being socialist and to use forceful government intervention the right way. This New Deal did improve the economy over time.
Britain and France Declare War
Britain and France finally declare war on Germany. This would be the official start of World War II, a war that would last for 6 years and be the most devastating war in human history.
1941 - 1945
As a part of Hitler's final solution Jewish people were put in death camps such as Auschwitz, Belzec, and Sobibor. By the end of this approximatley 6 million Jewish people had been murdered.
The Japanese attack on the U.S. Naval Base Pearl Harbor brought the U.S. into World War II.
Invasion of Normandy
Led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, this invasion penetrated the German Empire and would be the beginning of the end for Hitler and his army.
During this year the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This was the official end of World War II, and the end of the war in the Pacific.
By this time the Christian Democrat political party was a major force in Europe. Christian Democrats included famous leaders like Charles de Gaulle.
This plan gave much needed aid to democratic governments throughout the Cold War. The main idea of it was to help fight communism.
NATO is formed. This organization of democratic societies was the opposite of the communist Warsaw Pact. NATO was one of the two main alliances in Europe.
The outbreak of the Korean War created a period of economic progress in Europe that would last into the 1960's.
This offensive move by the North Vietnamese created a clear defeat for the American Army. This also increased protestation at the home front and even more frustration.
1769 - 1849
Up until his death in 1849 Ali had established a strong and virtually independent Egyptian State, to be ruled by his family on a hereditary basis. His policies also attracted a large amount of Europeans.
Napoleon's Coup detat
Napoleon illegally dismissed the Assembly and took power, creating a new era in French history.
1855 - 1881
The reign of Alexander II created a more modern Russia with things like the abolition of serfdom.
Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860 creating a great division between the North and the South, and eventually causing a civil war.
Ismail of Egypt
In 1863 Ismail, Ali's Grandson, began rule in Egypt. Ismail was big on modernization and supported the construction of the Suez Canal.
Benito Mussolini "legally" takes power by threatening Italian King Victor Emmanuel III into giving him dictatorial powers.
The Death of Vladimir Lenin
Lenin died in 1924 leaving no clear successor. This ended an era in Russia and created a debacle between Trotsky and Stalin for who would be the successor.
Stalin Comes to Power
After the death of Vladimir Lenin Stalin beat out Trotsky for the head position in the Soviet Union. Stalin would be a key character in World War II and the modernization of Russia.
Hitler Comes to Power
Adolf Hitler makes his way as Chancellor in the German government. Hitler would soon be the largest character in the Second World War.
This meeting between the Big Three, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill, reaffirmed their determination to crush Germany.
The second meeting between the Big Three, this meeting created an agreement that Germany would be divided up into zones of occupation, and Stalin agreed to declare war on Japan after the German defeat.
The "Iron Curtain"
In 1946 Winston Churchill coined the iconic phrase "Iron Curtain" in reference to the political division between East and West Germany.
The Communist leader of Soviet Russia finally dies of a stroke. After his death Nikita Khrushchev takes power and creates a period of de-stalinization.
Treaty of Nanking
This treaty forced the imperial country of China to secede Honk Kong to Britain, pay 100 million dollars, and to open up four large cities for trade with low tariffs.
Three Emperor's League
A conservative alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia that was against radical movements
Married Women's Property Act
This law increased the social status of woman, and increased their rights in society.
An alliance between Italy, Germany, and Austria. This added yet another alliance in Europe, and would soon add to what caused World War I.
1884 - 1885
This conference established principles on how European nations must claim African territories.
The Tsar issued this. This manifesto granted full civil rights and a popularly elected duma.
The People's Budget
Britain passed the People's Budget which was meant to spend money on social services.
This included France, Russia, and Britain. This was one of two major alliances in Europe at the time.
This declaration created by Arthur Balfour declared that Britain favored a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine.
Treaty of Brest-Litsvok
This treaty forced Russia to give up multiple territories which caused them to lose 1/3 of their population.
Treaty of Versailles
This treaty heavily punished Germany, and put all the blame of the Great War. Also at these talks President Wilson proposed his 14 points, and the League of Nations.
In this, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state.
These laws deprived all Jewish-German citizens of their rights of citizenship, and was a part of Hitler's plan to ride Germany of the Jewish population.
Treaty of Rome
This treaty signed by the six nations of the Coal and Steel Community created the Common Market which attempted to reduce trade tariffs throughout Europe.
Karl Marx released his Communist Manifesto that urged people to join and support the working class against the government,
On Liberty is an essay published by John Stuart Mill, a bethamite, that showed how to protect the rights of an individual.
Syllabus of Errors
In 1864 Pope Pius IX strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty after the Unification of Italy.
The Birth of Tragedy
Frederick Nietzsche published his first major book, The Birth of Tragedy, which argued that ever since classical Athens, the west gad overemphasized rationality and stifled the passion and animal instinct that drive human activity and true creativity.
Dostoevski, The Brothers Karmazov
1880 - 1881
The Brothers Karamazov is a passionate philosophical novel that enters deeply into the ethical debates of God, free will, and morality. It is a spiritual drama of moral struggles concerning faith, doubt, and reason, set against a modernizing Russia.
The Starry Night
This was a painting created by Vincent Van Goh. He painted the vision of his mind's eye, and starry night is now one of the most famous paintings in history.
The Bauhaus was created by Walter Gropius. This special building brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators.
The Rite of Spring
This was a ballet created by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. This ballet caused a riot when it was first performed because of how progressive and sexual it was.
Mein Kampf was a book written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison. This book outlines Hitler's plans for future Germany.
The Sound and the Fury
This novel written by William Faulkner exemplifies the new writing technique, stream-of-consciousness. Faulkner is also known to be one of the greatest 20th century writers.
Pasteurization is Developed
Louis Pasteur creates a new idea called Pasteurization which helps to improve the safety of food, and increases the health of citizens
1856 - 1939
The Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund created radical theories about the mind and family life. A lot of his ideas were not taken well. Sigmund led the way for modern psychologgy
Darwin, On the Origin of Species
A publication released by Charles Darwin, this book is considered to be the foundation of evolution biology.
After learning from Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister found that bacteria was in the air and that that was what caused wound infections. This would lead to the anti-septic principle.
Dimitri Mendeleev created the first periodic table. A table that is even used today. Mendeleev was also a leader in organic chemistry.
Max Planck showed that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven spurts called "quanta". This led to a distinction between matter and energy.
This new invention created by Guglielmo Macroni permitted the transmission of speech and music.
Frued Becomes Popular
At this time Sigmund Freud's idea were starting to become popular in protestant countries of Northern Europe.
1750 - 1850
A time period when many children were being born out of wed lock, or when there were many wives created because of a child.
Freeing the serfs
A big step in modernizing Russia, Alexander II finally freed the serfs.
Growth in Wealth
By this date nations like, Australia, Canada, and the U.S., had higher average incomes than Britain, Europe's wealthiest nation.
International working Men's Association
Karl Marx founded this to unite workers around the world and to create protests for Marx's social revolution.
1898 - 1899
After a Jewish captain in the French army was wrongly accused a case was opened. This case divided France and included prominent novelists such as Emile Zola.
The Middle Class
By this time the Middle Class was becoming more consciousnesses. This would include food, clothes, and etc. This led the way to the modern middle class, and closed the gap between the upper and lower class.
By this time about 1/7 people in England were considered a domestic servant. The majority being women.
In this year women were beginning to gain the right to vote in America. This soon spread to other European nations like Norway in following years.
A protester from Germany who screamed "Down with the government! Down with the war!" This electrified Europe's radical left wingers.