The Republic (Part II)

Main

Italians now use over 10 million cars

1970

The Fiat 600, Italy's first mass produced car, replaced the bicycle, the common means of transportation in the late 1940s

European survey reveals 72% of Italians are unsatisfied with their democracy

1970

terrorism in the North and organized crime in the South were among the causes in this lack of confidence

Red Brigades founded

1970

Left-wing terrorism replaced right-wing terrorism; sought to create a revolution through armed struggle

Church attendance has declined steadily

1972

only 35% of Italians attend church regularly as opposed to almost 70% in 1956

OPEC raises oil prices by 70%

1973

devastating consequences: prices soar, and industrialists can no longer afford higher costs with lower wages; government devalues the lira, raising domestic prices; Italy trapped in inflation throughout the 1970s

Historic Compromise between PCI, PSI, and DC

1973

Enrico Berlinguer unites the three main parities under communism

Neo-fascist Rosa dei Venti attempt to prepare a coup d'etat

1974

this company had been carrying out acts of terrorism in preparation, and members of the secret service and armed forces were implicated

Revealed that Christian Democrats had been paid off by oil comapnies

1974

the payment in exchange for political favors was among the first of several political scandals of the 1970s

92% of Italians own televisions

1975

in 1965, the figure was less than 50%

2 Government ministers take bribes from American company Lockheed

1976

Social Democrat, Mario Tanassi, goes to prison

Over 100 separate left-wing terrorist groups operate in Italy

1976

Murder of Aldo Moro

1978

Red Brigades kidnap, imprison, and kill the President of the Christian Democrats and dominant political figure of the period; high-water mark of Italian terrorism

Sandro Pertini is President of the Republic

1978 - 1985

best loved politician since Mussolini; injected a badly needed moral authority into government institutions

Neo-fascists bomb Bologna station

1980

killed 85 people, but was the last major act of serious violence; unable to sustain itself on a serious level beyond the mid-1970s

Assasination of Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa

1982

The head of the Carabinieri was killed by the mafia in Palermo, spurring a vigorous conviction of mafiosi

Italian recession comes to an end

1984

period of rapid growth ensues

Francesco Cossiga becomes President of the Republic

1985

First maxi trial of members of Cosa Nostra

1986 - 1987

criminal trial against the Sicilian Mafia in Palermo; held in a bunker-courthouse specially constructed for this purpose inside the walls of the Ucciardone prison; most were convicted due to the confessions of boss Tommaso Buscetta

Collapse of communism in Eastern Europe

1989 - 1991

the end of the Soviet Union removed a key stabilizing element in the Italian political system

Revealed that President Cossiga involved in right wing terrorism in the 50s

1990

Italian Communist Party comes to an end

1991

replaced by the Democratic Party of the Left

1992 Elections

1992

Christian Democrats drop below 30% for the first time in the Republic

Judge Giovanni Falcone blown up in a massive bomb

1992

result of resurgence in mafia activity in the South

Elections of 1992

1992

nearly 9% of the electorate votes for the Northern League

Bettino Craxi resigns

1993

result of a major scandal involving kickbacks in the Milan city council involving leading Socialists, including Craxi

Scandal of tangentopoli

1993

a thousand businessmen, mostly Socialists and Christian democrats come under enquiry and and are imprisoned

1994 Elections

1994

Forza Italia, a party founded two months beforehand, is most successful; like the Northern League in that it combined old and new elements of patriotism; based on solidarity of football; founder Silvio Berlusconi becomes prime minister at the head of a right wing coalition with the Northern League

Lamberto Dini elected prime minister

1995

succeeded in pushing through unpopular but needed financial decisions, including bringing down the cost of state pensions; also pressed ahead against organized crime in the south; restored Italy's credibility internationally

Berlusconi resigns

1995

disenchantment with his government leads to protesting his proposals to cut spending on pensions and health; Berlusconi is forced to resign after investigation for false accounting in business dealings

1996 Elections

1996

victory goes to a left-of-center coalition known as the Ulivo, won over 20% of the vote; comprised of several parties, the largest being the Democratic Party of the Left

Italy formally accepted for entry into the single currency

1998

Massimo D'Alema elected

1998

replaces Romano Prodi

Giuliano Amata elected

2000

Giorgio Napolitano

2006 - Present