The Portuguese had reached India and southeast Asia. Then sailed to China, hoping to expand their trading empire
Europe’s powerful nations were emerging and would challenge China’s proud image of its self.
The Europeans refuse to kowtow or bow low to the chinese emperor. To Kowtow is a symbol that showed foreigners accepted their inferior status
Chinas relationship with the west is changing because The Qing dynasty entered a long period of decline. And Europe industrializes which allows them to have more power
(late 1700's) Britain began to sell opium that was grown in India to China. Other western nations also entered the Opium trade. by the early 1800's the Chinese were addicted to the drug but the trade drained the supply of silver which was used to pay for the drug. The Chinese government tried to stop the illegal drug trade by passing harsh laws those who smuggled or used the drug faced death penaltys. Then in 1839 the Chinese destroyed a British shipment of opium, and war broke out
The treaty of Nanjing ended the war, it was the first of many unequal treaties. In it the chinese accepted British terms for peace. the emperor agreed to pay for the opium that was destroyed. he also agreed to five Britain the is;and of Hong Kong and to open other ports to British rule
Began in 1851 and lasted for 14 years. more then 20 million people were killed in this struggle. Even though the Qing Dynasty crushed the rebels, the fighting further weakened the dynastyy
By the late 1800's the western powers had carved up China into spheres of influence. an Sphere of influence is an area in which a foreign nation had special economic privileges, such as the right to build railroads and factories
Japan adopted western technology and modernized it industries
By 1895 strong Japan was able to defeat China in the Sino-Japanese war. and as a result, Japan won Formosa (present day Taiwan) and also extended its influence in Korea.
Ci Xi seized power as emperor and ended the influence of moderate reformers. More radical reformers, however, stepped up on their demands for an end to the Qing Dynasty.
The Boxers attacked and killed many Chinese Christians and foreigners. Empress Ci Xi secretly encouraged the Boxers. Boxer forces surrounded the foreign diplomatic quater in Beijing. As a result of the Boxer Rebellion China was forced to allow foreign troops on Chinese soil and foreign warships in Chinese water.
China declared itself a republic, ending the ancient system of imperial rule. In 1911, China had no well-organized government to replace the Qing Dynasty so from 1911-1928 the country seemed ready to break into mant pieces. Civil war raged with many people claiming the right to rule China.
Yuan Shikai force Sun out of office, soon war lords, were battling for power in China.
Chiang moved against the Communists. He expelled them from the Guomindang and killed thousands of their supporters. those who survived fled to the mountains of southern China
Chiang had took China under his control as the new leader of China
Moas Zedong emerged as the leaser of the Chinese Communists. Moa believed that the communists would succeed in China only buy winning the support of the peasants. He insisted, therefore, that Communists paid peasants for the food their sources required. with the Peasants as supporters, Moas army grew in number
Chiang launched a fierce campaign against the communists. Greatly outnumbered the Communists fled from Chiang's armies.
The Japs launched an all-out war against China. Japanese planes bombed Chinese cities and Japan's armies overran the most heavily populated regions of China.