Louis, who is Marie Antoinette's husband and also France's king in the 1700s, was spending too much money on war and luxery. This put his economy in debt so he hired Necker, a financial expert. However, Necker was quickly fired when he suggested that the First two Estates be taxed.
The delegates of the Third Estate took the Tennis Courth Oath in Versailles after Louis closed down their meeting hall. They gathered in a tennis court and swore they'de meet everyday untill a constitution was made.
Parisians heared rumors that royal troops were going to occupy the Capital so they went to Bastille and demanded gunpowered. The commander of Bastille refused to open the door for them so they fought and the victories were the Parisians. They killed the commander and 5 gurads, but found no gunpowder.
DOROMATC was the first step to writting a constitution. It was written in France and it stated that all men were boron and remain free and equal in rights. They enjoy rights to liberty, propertry, security, and residence to opperation.
About 6,000 women marched 13 miles from Paris to Versailles and demanded their queen and king return to Paris. Louis and Marie didn't wanted to leave Versailles and the wonderful luxuries they had. However, they end up back in Paris basically as prisoners and the women are happy.
The king and queen wanted to escape Paris. the king disguised himself as a servant and the queen looked like a governess. In a town along the way, Louis's disguised was uncovered by someone who recognized his face on the currency and the royal family was sent back.
After the Church is placed under control, the National Assembly forms the constitution . The constitution had a limited Monarchy. A new Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws and collect taxes
In France, Robespierre promoted religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery. He believed that France could achieve a republic of virtue through the use of terror.
The Radicals took over the Assembly and called for an election of a new legislative body called the National convention. The convention voted for Louis, the king, to be executed for being a traitor to France. After his execution, his wife was voted to a death sentence as well.
Robespierre was a chief supported of the Reign of Terror. He believed that the people would done wrong or were against he revolution had to be behead by the guillotine. This was a time of bloody violence for France. on July 27,1794, fearing their own lives, members of the convention turned on the CPS and arrested and executed Robespierre.
A new Constitution was set up with 5 Directories and a two-house legislature elected by male citizens of property. The middle class and professional people of the bourgeoisie were the dominant force during this stage of the French Revolution. This system helped spread power in more than one person's hand.
Napoleon Bonaparte was a lieutenant before he became France's hero. Everyone liked him and wanted him to rule because of his reputation of winning wars. In 1802, Napoleon had himself named consul for life
He was very cocky. In 1804, he crowed himself king and basically said he's better than the Pope.
In France, after Napoleon made peace with the catholic church in Concordat of 1801, he made a code of laws called the Napoleonic Code. It embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of Feudalism. The Napoleonic Code also undid some reforms of the French revolution. Women, for example, lost most of their newly gained rights and couldn't exercise the rights of citizenship.
Napoleon's plans for each battle he fought was never anticipated by the opposing generals. He abolished the tottering Holy Roman Empire and created a 38-member Confederation of the Rhine under French Protection. Napoleon also cut Prussian territory in half. After he unseated the king of Spain, he appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte to the throne. In France, Napoleon's success boosted the spirit of Nationalism.
Napoleon had an enormous amount of land but he was greedy and wanted more. He went up against Britain but lost the fight in 1805. Since France lost, Napoleon thought that he could hurt Britain in another way, economically that is. He came up with the Continental system which closed European ports to British goods. Although Britain exports declined, Britain's powerful navy kept vital trade routs open to the Americas and India.
With about 600,000 soldiers and 50, 000 horses, Napoleon invaded Russia. To avoid the battle with him, the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went. This scorched-earth policy left the French hungry and cold as winter came. After retreating, Napoleon realized that he went home with only 20,000 soldiers from his Grand Army. After this, Napoleon's reputation for success had been shattered.
Nationalism worked against Napoleon. Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon's and his armies as foreign oppressors. They resented the Continental System and Napoleon's effort to impose the French culture on them. From Rome to Madrid to the Netherlands, nationalism unleashed revolts against France. In German states, leaders encouraged national loyalty among German-speaking people to counter French influence. Spanish patriots conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the French when Napoleon introduced reforms that sought to undermine the Spanish Catholic Church.
After Waterloo, diplomates and head of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war. The Congress met for 10 months. The chief goal of the Vienna decision makers was to creating a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting he system of Monarchy. The architect of the peace promoted the principle of Legitimacy. In a quadruple alliance of Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain, the nations pledged to act together and maintain the balance of power and suppress revolutionary upraising. Anther result of the Congress was the Concert of Europe in which powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the Peace of Europe.
In 1814, Napoleon abdicated. He did this because he was defeated at the battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813. The victors exiled him to Elba and brought Louis, brother of Louis the 16th, as king. When things didn't work out with him, the people of France wanted Napoleon back. Napoleon's triumph was short lived when he lost the battle of Waterloo in Belgium. Once again he was forced into exile on St. Helena.