King Phillip II was born in Valladolid on May 21, 1527 . He is the son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Phillip II became king in the year of 1556, then soon married Queen Mary I. He was also the King of England and the King of Ireland. In 1556 Henry II the King of France and Philip II the King of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles. In 1557 King Phillip II went bankrupt for the first time. In 1560 King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students.
Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 at York House near the Strand in London, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his second wife Anne (Cooke) Bacon, the daughter of noted humanist Anthony Cooke. His mother's sister was married to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, making Burghley Francis Bacon's uncle. (Francis Bacon)
John Locke, born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, Somerset, England, went to Westminster school and then Christ Church, University of Oxford. At Oxford he studied medicine, which would play a central role in his life. He became a highly influential philosopher, writing about such topics as political philosophy, epistemology, and education. Locke's writings helped found modern Western philosophy. (John Locke biography)
Louis XIV of France ranks as one of the most remarkable monarchs in history. He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his rule has been hailed as the supreme example of a type of government - absolutism. He epitomized the ideal of kingship. During his reign France stabilized and became one of the strongest powers in Europe. (Louis XIV - the Sun King)
The time was half past three, on the famous date of July 14, 1789. A huge, bloodthirsty mob marched to the Bastille, searching for gun powder and prisoners that had been taken by the unpopular and detested King, Louis XVI. Even elements of the newly formed National Guard were present at the assault. The flying rumors of attacks from the government and the biting truth of starvation were just too much for the angry crowds. (Revolution)
There was a massive grain shortage in the spring, and there were alot of rumors of an aristocrat to burn or starve out the entire population, peasant and town people moved to many other regions to escape the great fear. Peasents that stayed/could'nt move armed themselves with weapons and went and attack the manors of the rich. In some areas it was believed that a foreign force were burning the fields while in other areas bandits were burning buildings and houses.
Napoleon gained power in November 1799 when he was 30 years old. Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the island of corsica in the year of 1769. Napoleon was the leader to a very victorious attack on a Royalist fort and then he was promoted to
Brigadier General. On December 2, 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor.
This event was also known as the Russian Campaign in France. It decended the French and allied invasion forces to a small fraction of the original intial strength. At almost 1/2 a million strong of soldiers the Grande Armée marched through Western Russia vigorously. Napoleon went to Moscow on the day of September 14, after the Russian Army retreated again.
With Napoleon's failure against the Russians in 1812, fervent nationalism swept across Germany, Austria, Italy and other lands dominated by the French. The Spanish were still fighting to drive out the French. Already in May 1811 the French had been driven from Portugal. In February, 1813, Prussia and Russia formed an alliance against Napoleon, and in March they declared war. (NAPOLEON'S WARS, MISTAKES and FALL)
The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers which had defeated Napoleon. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic empire, and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions, such as the French Revolution, and maintain the status quo. (Congress of Vienna)