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Nicolaus Copernicus

February 19, 1473 - May 24, 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Royal Prussia, a region of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466, and is also a physician, polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, governor, diplomat, economist, and a polish astronomer who amazed people all around the world by changing their perspective of the galaxy that they barely know about. He came up with the heliocentric of the universe where the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center with all of the other planets revolving around the Sun. He also wrote a book called "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before he died in 1543, and this was a huge event in the history of Science. It changed the way scientists from all around the world looked at the unknown galaxy called space. He also set down a quantity theory of money, a principal concept in economics to the present day, and formulated a version of Gresham's Law in the year 1519, before Gresham.

Philip II's Reign

January 16, 1556 - September 13, 1598

Philip II is Charles V's son, who was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. Philip II took over as King of Spain on January 16, 1956 at age 28 after he was already crowned King of Naples and King of England. Philip II was an absolute Monarch and saw himself as the guardian of the Catholic Church. He used his control of the Spanish Army and Navy to go against Protestants and heretics. Because the small middle class didn't have any representation, Philip II heavily taxed them to fund his wars and build the Spanish Armada. His father had left him with a debt of 36 million ducats, but in the first year of his succession he signed a truce with France's Henry II. Philip II becomes involved in a war in 1590 against Huguenots of France and this war lasted all of the way until he died on September 13, 1598.

Isaac Newton

December 25, 1642 - March 20, 1727

Sir Isaac Newton was bron on December 25th, 1642, and he was an English Physicist and a Mathematician. He was one of the most influential scientists of all time and was a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton formulated the laws of motion and the rules of gravity that have been used for more than 300 years, and also demonstrated that the motion of the objects on Earth and the celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. With Newtons newly found data, it removed all doubts about the heliocentric model of the cosmos. Newton studied the speed of sound, and also created the first reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into many others of the visible spectrum. He died on March 20, 1727.

King Louis XIV

May 14, 1643 - September 1, 1715

King Louis XIV became King of France and Navarre at a very young age of 4. King Louis was also known as Louis the Great, and The Sun King. King Louis was one of the first Absolute Monarchs to ever be, which gave him total control over his country. Some main wars during his reign were the War of Devolution (1667-1668), War against Holland (1672-1678), War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697), and The War of Spanish Succession (1702-1714). One year after the Spanish Succession War had ended, the Sun King died on September 1, 1715.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

The Tennis Court Oath occured during the first couple days of the French Revolution and was a huge part in it. The Third Estate began having political meetings to accomplish goals that they had set for the French Revolution, and on June 17, 1789, this group began to call themselves the National Assembly. On the morning of June 20, 1789, the National Assembly found the chamber door locked and guarded heavily, so fearing an attack by the King, they fled to a nearby Tennis Court and demanded a constitution, and until they got one they would stay there and not seperate. After a while, this forced King Louis to order the Clergy and the Nobility to join with the National Assembly in the Third Estate.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

The Bastille is a medieval fortress/prison in Paris, France. The community in Paris was in major debt because of the help they offered to the American Revolution, and that made them very angered. Over 90% of the population wanted to deal with this issue but the second estate consisting of only 2% upheld this request. On June 17, 1989 the Third Estate formed a National Assembly consisting of their representatives to form a French Constitution. The King did not like this idea and vetoed it, but was forced to allow them to form it because of the authority of the Third Estate, so on July 9th, it was formed and they changed their name to the National Constituent Assembly. The commoners also formed a National Guard to represent as their army to get their goals accomplished, and the colours of this army were blue, red, and white, which would in turn become the colours of the Revolution. On July 14th, the commoners stormed the Bastille and freed the captured guards who were put in prison for not firing on the people. This is what was known as the Storming of the Bastille.

Execution of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

January 21, 1793 - October 16, 1793

King Louis was not the most loved person in Paris at this time. After August 10, 1792, which saw the fall of the Monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by Insurgents, King Louis XVI was arrested, put into the Temple Prison along with his family, and was found guilty by almost every single person who voted, for high treason, and there was a slight majority for the sentence to be death. His execution on January 21 was the first of the Reign of Terror, and was soon followed by his wife, Marie Antoinette on October 16, 1793. While King Louis was escorted to his guillotine, he was accompanied by a very luxury closed carriage, where Marie Antoinette was brought to the guillotine in an open, very non luxorious carriage.

The Reign of Terror

September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794

The Reign of Terror was a time of violence and terror, brought upon by the French Revolution, and many executions took place between rival polical parties and "Enemies of the Revolution". The death toll amounted up to tens of thousands with 16,594 executions by the guillotine, and another 25,000 in places around France. During 1794, Revolutionary France had many conspiracies brought upon them by foreign and internal enemies. The Roman Catholic Church was against the Revolution, which caused the Clergy to become workers of the State and take an oath of loyalty to the nation. Foreign enemies started getting involved with the French Revolution which increased the tension between the two political parties, the Girondins and the more radical Jacobins. The Repression increased during June and July of 1794 and ended on July 27, 1794 during the coup of 9 Thermidor Year II, leading to the Thermidor Reaction, in which several protagonists of the Reign of Terror were executed including Saint-Just and Robespierre.

Napoleon Invades Russia

June, 1812 - September, 1812

The reason for Napoleon invading Russia is because he was trying to force Tsar Alexander I to submit once againt to the Terms of a Treaty that Napolean gave him 4 years ago. With near half a million soldiers, Napoleon led his army into Russia with the biggest army ever seen. By September Napoleon's army was cut down to near 150,000 soldiers because of starvation, disease, fatigue, and Russian raids. On September 7th the two armies met and by the end of the day there was a total of 108,000 casualties between the two armies. Whenever Napoleon finally arrived in Moscow, he found the city burning in a bright blaze of fire, the whole city was on fire because the Russians would rather burn their sacred city than have it tainted by the European scum. On a rage filled walk back to his country, Napoleon and his army was cut down to 10,000 people by the end of the trip. So overall it was a huge loss for Napoleon and one of his biggest mistakes.

The Congress of Vienna

September, 1814 - June, 1815

The Congress of Vienna was a congress of European ambassadors to figure out what to do about the wars involved with Napolean, the French Revolution, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The goals that they set out to do took a while but in time they became reality, they redrew the continent's political map. This was only the first of many international meetings that are now known as the Concept of Europe which was to balance the power in Europe. Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in 1814 brought an end to 25 years of continuos war. The congress's "Final Act" was signed nine days before Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo on June 18th, 1815. This congress was the first time in history where on a continental scale, nation representatives came together to come up with treaties in person, rather than sending messangers to talk between notes.