Booker T. Washington gave this speech to exchange African American rights in exchange for economic opportunity.
Plessy v Fergison
A court case that established 'separate, but equal'
An organization that was established. Used court cases as main tool.
Universal Negro Improvement Association. Est by Marcus Garvey. Black Pride.
Birth of a Nation
Wilson shows 'Birth of a Nation' in White House. KKK revival
26 documented race riots, 100s of African Americans killed
Nation of Islam
Established. The Nation of Islam's stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Its critics accuse it of being black supremacist and antisemitic.
Was discriminated by the Daughters of the American revolution, so Elenore Roosevelt set up Lincoln Memorial concert.
Federal Employment of Practices Commissions. Gave African Americans equal opportunity in defense industries; this was b/c of A Philip Randof threatening his March on Washington.
CORE is established (Congress for Racial Equality). Worked in the Freedom Rides 1961
Desegregation of the Troops
President Trueman desegregated the Troops
Henry T. Moore
December 25, 1951
Active in NAACP; murdered by KKK on Christmas (Home bombed). First NAACP member to be killed for activism.
Brown v Board of Education
A court case that ruled that desegregated schools with 'all deliberate speed'
A 14 year old boy is brutally murdered by 2 white men b/c he talked/whistled to/at a white woman. His mangled body is shown in an open casket funeral in Chicago.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955 - 1956
100 days after Emmitt Till. Rosa Parks starts this (w/ CORE) led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
100 congressmen signed it in protest to Brown v Board of Education. (Texas didn't sign LBJ)
An attempted integration of Central High. Little Rock AR. One female showed up and she was mobbed; President Ike sent in the troops.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Est with the help of MLK
Greensboro Sit in
4 African American college students sat down at a lunch counter and refused to leave unless they were served. This idea spread like wildfire in the South.
JFK is elected
Elected b/c of African American vote (Slim Margin, so couldn't piss anyone off)
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee established b/c of sit-ins. Had a more assist existing demonstrations approach.
To test the desegregation on interstate buses four white and four black students took buses from Virginia to Mississippi. They were firebombed. (CORE & SNCC) JFK sent gov protection.
Accepted into University of Mississippi and there was a riot in retaliation. JFK sent 170 fed marshals and 2 died and 100 were injured.
Black schoolchildren attempted to integrate the city and Police Chief Bull Connor used police dogs and water-canons. National Attention
March on Washington
MLK perpetuating A Philip Randolph's idea. Intro of Malcom X and Carmichoel's ideals.
Banned poll tax
Civil Rights Act
2.Attorney Gen of US could start fed court actions against violations
3.Fed Gov had the power to withhold funds from non compliant states
4.Equal Employment Opportunities Commission w/ power to outlaw job discrimination
A campaign for voting registration, which included education. (COFO) 3 people were kidnapped and murdered.
Malcom X Assasination
Voting Rights Act
1.Banned literacy tests for voter registration
2.Appointed fed examiners to ensure voter registration
March 7, 1965
March through racist portion of AL to pressure fed gov into action. March 7th became known as Bloody Sunday (Attacked by state troopers)
Established as a group against police brutality and help out in community
Carmicheol took over SNCC and kicked out white leadership