African American Civil Rights

Using Cambridge AICE events for Theme 4 1985-1968

Main

Atlantic Compromise

1895

Booker T. Washington gave this speech to exchange African American rights in exchange for economic opportunity.

Plessy v Fergison

1896

A court case that established 'separate, but equal'

NAACP

1909

An organization that was established. Used court cases as main tool.

UNIA

1914

Universal Negro Improvement Association. Est by Marcus Garvey. Black Pride.

Birth of a Nation

1915

Wilson shows 'Birth of a Nation' in White House. KKK revival

Red Summer

1919

26 documented race riots, 100s of African Americans killed

Nation of Islam

1934

Established. The Nation of Islam's stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Its critics accuse it of being black supremacist and antisemitic.

Marian Anerson

1939

Was discriminated by the Daughters of the American revolution, so Elenore Roosevelt set up Lincoln Memorial concert.

FEPC

1941

Federal Employment of Practices Commissions. Gave African Americans equal opportunity in defense industries; this was b/c of A Philip Randof threatening his March on Washington.

CORE

1942

CORE is established (Congress for Racial Equality). Worked in the Freedom Rides 1961

Desegregation of the Troops

1948

President Trueman desegregated the Troops

Henry T. Moore

December 25, 1951

Active in NAACP; murdered by KKK on Christmas (Home bombed). First NAACP member to be killed for activism.

Brown v Board of Education

1954

A court case that ruled that desegregated schools with 'all deliberate speed'

Southern Mannifesto

1955

100 congressmen signed it in protest to Brown v Board of Education. (Texas didn't sign LBJ)

Emmitt Till

1955

A 14 year old boy is brutally murdered by 2 white men b/c he talked/whistled to/at a white woman. His mangled body is shown in an open casket funeral in Chicago.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955 - 1956

100 days after Emmitt Till. Rosa Parks starts this (w/ CORE) led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.

Littel Rock

1957

An attempted integration of Central High. Little Rock AR. One female showed up and she was mobbed; President Ike sent in the troops.

SCLC

1957

Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Est with the help of MLK

Greensboro Sit in

1960

4 African American college students sat down at a lunch counter and refused to leave unless they were served. This idea spread like wildfire in the South.

SNCC

1960

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee established b/c of sit-ins. Had a more assist existing demonstrations approach.

JFK is elected

1960

Elected b/c of African American vote (Slim Margin, so couldn't piss anyone off)

Freedom RIdes

1961

To test the desegregation on interstate buses four white and four black students took buses from Virginia to Mississippi. They were firebombed. (CORE & SNCC) JFK sent gov protection.

James Merideth

1962

Accepted into University of Mississippi and there was a riot in retaliation. JFK sent 170 fed marshals and 2 died and 100 were injured.

March on Washington

1963

MLK perpetuating A Philip Randolph's idea. Intro of Malcom X and Carmichoel's ideals.

Birmingham

1963

Black schoolchildren attempted to integrate the city and Police Chief Bull Connor used police dogs and water-canons. National Attention

JFK Assasination

1963

24th Amendment

1964

Banned poll tax

Freedom Summer

1964

A campaign for voting registration, which included education. (COFO) 3 people were kidnapped and murdered.

Civil Rights Act

1964

1.No segregation
2.Attorney Gen of US could start fed court actions against violations
3.Fed Gov had the power to withhold funds from non compliant states
4.Equal Employment Opportunities Commission w/ power to outlaw job discrimination

Voting Rights Act

1965

1.Banned literacy tests for voter registration
2.Appointed fed examiners to ensure voter registration

Malcom X Assasination

1965

Selma March

March 7, 1965

March through racist portion of AL to pressure fed gov into action. March 7th became known as Bloody Sunday (Attacked by state troopers)

Black Panthers

1966

Established as a group against police brutality and help out in community

Stokely Carmichoel

1966

Carmicheol took over SNCC and kicked out white leadership

MLK Assination

1968

RFK Assination

1968

Year of Riots

1968

RIOTS

Presidential

Cleveland

1893 - 1897

McKinley

1897 - 1901

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

Taft

1909 - 1913

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

Harding

1921 - 1923

Coolige

1923 - 1929

Hoover

1929 - 1933

FDR

1933 - 1945

Truman

1945 - 1953

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

JFK

1961 - 1963

LBJ

1963 - 1969

World News

WWI

1914 - 1918

WW II

1939 - 1945

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Vietnam War

1959 - 1975

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 22, 1962