Timeline of Events: Tunisia

Timeline of events in Tunisia that could lead to a revolution.

French Protectorate

The Bardo Treaty is signed

05/12/1881

The Bardo Treaty is signed, where Tunisia becomes a French protectorate.

Neo-Destour Party formed

1934

The Neo-Destour Party is formed by Habib Bourguiba.

Independence

Conventions and Protocols signed by Tunisian & French premier ministers

06/03/1955

A series of conventions and protocols are signed by Tunisian premier minister Tahar ibn Ammar and French premier minister Edgar Faure. These gave Tunisia a high degree of self-rule.

Tunisia becomes Independent

03/20/1956

More independence is given to Tunisia with a new protocol signed in Paris. With this protocol the Bardo Treaty of 1881 is abrogated, and Tunisia is consequently an independent nation.

National Legislative Elections

03/25/1956

National legislative elections, which gave the Neo-Destour Party a decisive victory.

Bourguiba is elected president of the first Tunisian National Assembly

04/08/1956

Bourguiba is elected president of the first Tunisian National Assembly.

Bourguiba is elected premier minister.

04/11/1956

Bourguiba is elected premier minister.

Clashes between French and Tunisian troops

July 1957 - December 1957

There are several clashes between French and Tunisian troops along the Tunisian-Algerian border. French troops are accused of crossing into Tunisia.

Tunisia becomes a Republic

07/25/1957

Tunisia becomes a republic, as the National Assembly deposes the bey. Habib Bourguiba becomes the new republic's first president.

Presidential Elections

11/08/1959

Elections where Bourguiba is elected president, without any opposing candidates. The Neo-Destour Party wins all seats in the parliament. Few in the national opposition and in the outside world regarded these elections to have been fair and free.

Tunisia demands Franch leave Naval base at Bizerte

07/19/1961

After that Tunisia has demanded that France leave their naval base at Bizerte, their troops siege the base. France responded, and fights broke out. Within 2 days 1,300 Tunisians are killed.

Foreign owned lands expropriated by the National Assembly

May 1964

About 3,000 km² of foreign owned lands are expropriated by the National Assembly. This mainly affected French families, and France responded by stopping all financial assistance to Tunisia. Tunisian politics shift more in a socialist direction. This is reflected in the name change of the Neo-Destour Party into Destour Socialist Party.

Bourguiba is appointed president for life by the National Assembly

March 1975

Bourguiba is appointed president for life by the National Assembly.

Modern Tunisia

Bloodless Palace Coup

11/07/1987

In a coup Bourguiba is removed as president, and replaced by his fresh prime minister Zine el Abidine Ben Ali.

Presidential Elections

10/24/1994

Presidential elections, where President Ben Ali has allowed contesting candidates to run. According to the official figures, Ben Ali receives 99.44% of the votes, the two others sharing the remainder between them. Same-day parliamentary elections give the ruling RDC 91.6% of the votes and all contested seats. Of a total 182 seats, the opposition receives by law 34 seats. MDS gets 13 seats, UDU 7, PUP 7, MR-Ettajdid 5 and Parti social libéral 2.

Close ties with European economy & security

1998

An agreement with the European Union brings Tunisia into a close cooperation with Europe in economy and security.

Changes in the constitution

May 2002

Changes in the constitution allows a president to stay in power until the age of 75 (70 before) and be reelected unlimited times (3 times before, Ben Ali had at this time been reelected the three times).

Ben Ali reelected

10/24/2004

Ben Ali is reelected president, receiving 94.5% of the votes. Mohamed Bouchiha gets 3.8%, Mohamed Ali Halouani 1%.

Islamist militants and security forces clash

2007

Islamist militants and security forces clash in Tunis (12 killed)

Ben Ali wins 5th term

2009

Ben Ali wins fifth term with 90 percent of the vote, rejects cries of fraud and threatens to prosecute critics.

Mohamed Bouazizi sets fire to himself

12/17/2010

Mohamed Bouazizi sets fire to himself in the central town of Sidi Bouzid in protest at the confiscation by police of his vegetable cart. Local people rally in support. Bouazizi later dies of his burns. Huge funeral increases momentum of protests against unemployment and repression.

Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia

01/14/2011

After days of clashes in which dozens of people are killed, and having made empty promises of reforms and elections, Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia. Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi stays on, with parliamentary speaker Fouad Mebazza as interim president.

Opposition figures quit cabinet

01/18/2011

Some opposition figures quit cabinet, demanding removal of former Ben Ali loyalists. Protesters denounce ''sham''.

Protestors demand Ghannouchi and other proteges go

01/22/2011

Protesters again demand Ghannouchi and other Ben Ali proteges go. Policemen, once the bulwark of Ben Ali's rule, demonstrate in Tunis, saying they too were victims.

Ghannouchi resigns

02/27/2011

Ghannouchi resigns after violent protests over his ties to Ben Ali, triggering street celebrations in Tunis. He is replaced by Beji Caid Sebsi, a former foreign minister under 1960s independence President Habib Bourguiba.

Sebsi unveils a new cabinet of technocrats

03/07/2011

Sebsi unveils a new cabinet of technocrats rather than career politicians, none of whom had served in governments under Ben Ali. The Interior Ministry says Ben Ali's political police and state security apparatus has been dissolved.

Ben Ali sentenced to prison

06/20/2011

A Tunisian court sentences Ben Ali and his wife Leila Trabelsi, in absentia to 35 years in prison for theft and illegal possession of large sums of cash. In July a court adds a 16-year jail term for Ben Ali and his son-in-law for corruption.

Tunisia votes in first election of the Arab Spring

10/23/2011

Tunisia votes in the first election of the Arab Spring, choosing from among 80 political parties to form an assembly charged with drafting a constitution within a year.

New President and Prime Minister are elected

12/13/2011

Members of the constitutional assembly vote to elect former dissident Moncef Marzouki as president, the second most powerful role after the prime minister. Hamadi Jebeli, secretary general of the moderate Islamist Ennahda party, is designated as prime minister.

Salafi Islamists attack bars and shops in Jendouba

May 2012 - June 2012

Hundreds of Salafi Islamists attack bars and shops and clash with security forces in Jendouba, raising religious-secularist tensions. In June, the government lifts a curfew imposed following riots by Salafis and others over an art exhibition they deemed insulting to Islam.

Stop of use of firearms against demonstrators

11/30/2012

Navi Pillay, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, says Tunisian authorities must stop using firearms against demonstrators after more than 220 people are reported injured in clashes between protesters demanding jobs and police in Siliana, on the edge of the Sahara Desert.

Chokri Belaid shot dead

02/06/2013

Opposition secularist politician Chokri Belaid is shot dead, sparking huge street protests. Prime Minister Jebali calls the killing a political assassination and a strike against the "Arab Spring" revolution.