Publishes The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection.
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk and botanists. He experimented on pea plants and noticed that the plants offsprings height, exhibited dominant and recessive traits.
Independently described the behavior of sex chromosomes-XX determines female; XY determines male.
George Beadle and Edward Tatum discover through experiments on neurospora, a bread mold, that genes are responsible for the production of enzymes. Their report is the genesis of the "one gene-one enzyme" concept.
Obtained sharp X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA.
Susumu Ohnov was one of the most famous developers of this theory in his classic book Evolution by gene duplication. The duplication of a gene results in an additional copy that is free from selective pressure.
In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Diamond v. Chakrabarty, upheld the first patent on a newly created living organism, a bacterium for digesting crude oil in oil spills.
Animal cloning- first mammal to be cloned (sheep). A bull was then later cloned in May.
An example of this genetic engineering is taking infertile women and correct defects in their mitochondria to have children.
FDA test to change genes and traits. It was to make animals stronger, faster, and sharper than normal predecessors.