The published of the origin species is By Charles Darwin. Darwin turned wholeheartedly to the problem of evolution. Ever since his Beagle trip he had been convinced that the difference between what naturalists called varieties and what they called species was much less significant than previously thought.
Mendel's first series of experiments were concerned with demonstrating the 3:1 segregation ratio when F1 hybrids are crossed.
Guyer's suggestions were among the first, which attempted to relate the variation observed in the offspring in hybridisation studies by a coherent cytological chromosome mechanism to meiosis before the rediscovery of Mendel's principles.
Investigators tried to produce mutationsartificially but failed until 1927 when MULLER announced that gene mutations could be produced by means of X-rays.
They propose that this pattern of punctuated equilibria results from an evolutionary tug-of-war between host genomes and transposable elements (TEs) mediated through the epigenome
the DNA polymerase-dependent strategies of Sanger sequencing, single nucleotide addition, and cyclic reversible termination are discussed to highlight recent advances and potential challenges these technologies face in their development for ultrafast DNA sequencing.
a revolutionary method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s.
The FLAVR SAVR tomato was the first genetically engineered crop product to be commercialized.
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans.
Currently, cloning is associated with an increase in animal suffering when compared with production of animals by standard breeding methods.