University of Toronto
Patent for crystalline salts - patentable despite being products of nature
EPO Technical Board of Appeal.
Plant cells as such cannot be considered to fall under the definition of plant or of plant variety - transgenic plants per se were unpatentable
"A claim wherein specific plant varieties are not individually claimed is not excluded from patentability under article 53 (b), even though it may embrace plant varieties"
Man-made oil-eating bacterium
Relevant was Product of nature v human-made
not Living vs inanimate
Microorganisms more akin to chemical compounds
Didn't settle the question - 2001 Supreme Court decision confirmed the legality
Polyploid oysters - patent rejected, but multicellular organisms were patentable
Pioneer Hi-bred and J.E.M Ag Supply
Started in the early 80s. Increased enormously by the end of the 20th Century. 5000% from 1990