The Road to World War 1

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

Peaceful Europe

1850

Liberals believed that if European states organized along national lines, these states could create a peaceful Europe

Triple Alliance

1882

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance

Triple Entente

1907

France, Great Britain, and Russia created the Triple Entente

Austria

1908

Tensions rose when Austria annexed the Ottoman province of Bosnia

Alliances to the Test

1908 - 1913

In the early years a series of crisis tested these alliances especially the troublesome crisis in the Balkans

Influence and Territory

1912 - 1913

Different Balkan groups Serbs, Rumanians, Greeks, and Turks fought one another for more territory and Influence

Assassination of Francis Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo

Internal Dissent

Desire

1914

A number of historians have argued that the desire to avoid revolution encouraged the plunge into war

Wealthy Class

1914

The working class and lower middle class did not want to let the wealthy people decide what was best for them

Militarism

Expansion

1890 - 1914

Armies expanded significantly; many armies doubled in size

Tensions in Europe

1900

The growth of mass armies heightened the existing tensions in Europe

Military Draft

1914

Conscription a military craft had been established as a regular practice in the west

Political Leaders

1914

Political Leaders were forced to make decisions for military instead of political reasons

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914

Summer of 1914

1914

The decision European leaders made in response to the crisis in the Balkans in the summer of1914 that led directly to conflict

Key Roles

1914

Militarism, nationalisms and the desire to stifle internal dissent may have played a role in the starting of world war 1

The Serbian Problem

War?

1913

The British ambassador anticipated war

Serbia

1913

Serbia supported by the Russia was determined to create a large independent Slavic state in the Balkans

Assassination in Sarajevo

Conspirators

1914

A Serbian terrorist organization wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary and to become part of a large Serbian kingdom

Assassination in Bosnia

1914

Wife of Archduke Francis Ferdinand was fatally shoot along with her husband by a 19-year old Bosnian Serb

Austria-Hungary Responds

Russian Intervention

1914

Austria leaders wanted to attack Serbia but feared Russian intervention on Serbia's behalf so they sought the backing of their German allies

Ultimatum

July 23, 1914

Austria leaders sent an ultimatum to Serbia

War Declared

July 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

Russia Mobilizes

Mobilization

1914

Mobilization was considered an act of war

Czar Nicholas II

July 28,1914

Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the RUssian army against Austria-Hungary

Playing with Fire

July 29,1914

The czar ordered full mobilization of the Russian army knowing that Germany would consider this order an act of war

The Conflict Broadens

Alliances

1894

France and Russia formed a military alliance

Russian and German War

August 1,1914

Germany declared war on Russia

Violation

August 4, 1914

Great Britain declared war on Germany officially for violating Belgian nationality

Great powers

August 4,1914

All the great powers of Europe had gone to war