Fur Trade

Main

Beaver Hats Become In

1/1/1590

"Then, toward the end of the 1500s, the evolution of style transformed the beaver hat into a necessary accoutrement for the well bred and well heeled. Suddenly the beaver--one of the world's most intriguing creatures--became the most sought-after commodity of the fur trade. Its popularity would not be surpassed for more than two hundred years" (FFE, 13).

Etienne Brule Reaches Headwaters of Superior

1/1/1618

Radisson and Groselliers Visit Duluth Area

1650

http://www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf1.html

"In 1658 two French explorers, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, became the first whites to circumnavigate Lake Superior by sailing south along the North Shore. When they returned, they brought a flotilla of Native Americans with fur pelts, beginning interest in the fur trade in the Lake Superior region."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Shore_(Lake_Superior)#History

Anishinabe and Dakota Conflict

1660 - 1670

Radisson and Groselliers Visit Duluth Area Again

1660

Claude-Jean Allouez Explores North Shore

1665

Lake Superior Ojibwe Lured to Hudson Bay

1680

Deluth Establishes a Post at Kaministiquia

1683

Near Pigeon River, border between Minnesota/Ontario that drains into Superior

http://www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf1.html

Trading Post at Kaministikwia Reestablished

1717

Trading post at Kaministikwia.

http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/grpo1/fur_trade.pdf

This is the post on the North Shore during this period.

Grand Portage Beings to Be Important

1753

Saint-Pierre establishes Grand Portage as a pass between East and West.

http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/grpo1/fur_trade.pdf

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

Pontiac's Rebellion

6/1763

British Regulations Loosen

1767

http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/grpo1/fur_trade.pdf

"Benjamin Roberts, the Indian commissary in charge of regulating the trade at Michilimackinac during Robert Rogers’s tenure, wrote that 1767 was 'the first year the traders were permitted to winter amongst the Indians at their villages and hunting grounds.'"

Northwest Company Runs Trade on Superior

1768 - 1804

"From 1768 until 1804, the North West Company brought hundreds of traders and voyageurs to their headquarters at Grand Portage to exchange west-bound trade goods for east-bound pelts."

http://www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf1.html

Ten Schooners Built for the Northwest Company

1778 - 1811

Construction Finished on Fort at Grand Portage

1784

Ft. St. Louis Built at Present Superior

1792

http://www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf1.html

"The first of these posts was located at the present site of Superior, Wisconsin. Known as Fort St. Louis, it became the head-quarters for North West Company's new Fond du Lac Department."

Up to a Thousand Men Present at Grand Portage

1793

Northwest Co. Buys Land at Kaministikwia from Anishinabe

7/30/1798

British Continue to Control Superior Trade

1805 - 1815

American Fur Company Post Built on St. Louis

1817

Madeline Crushed by Ice

4/1838

"The schooner Madeline was reportedly crushed by drifting ice in the mouth of the Knife River in April, 1838."

http://www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf1.html

Grand Portage Reverts to Anishinabe Village

1842