History of Computing

Timeline according to the textbook assigned to my class at SBCC, by Mitch Aki. 2013

Main

First Appearance of the Sumerian Abacus

2700 BC - 2300 BC

These dates aren't in the textbook, I found them on wikipedia.

First slide rule using Napier's logarithms by William Oughtred

1621

William Oughtred created the first slide rule in 1621. It remained in use as an essential tool through the 1960s.

Schickard's Calculator developed by Wilhelm Schickard

1623

Pascaline developed by Blaise Pascal

1642

Mechanical device that could be used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Leibniz Calculator developed by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

1673

Similar to the Pascaline.

de Colmar's Arithmometer developed by Thomas de Colmar

1820

Thomas de Colmar's Arithmometer was the first mass-produced mechanical calculator.

Difference Engine proposed by Charles Babbage

1822 - 1833

Babbage worked on the device for 11 years, but never created a working version of the device.

Analytical Engine designed by Charles Babbage

1834

Hollerith Tabulating Machine first used by US Census Bureau

1890

Hollerith incorporated The Tabulating Machine Company in 1896. Became IBM in 1924.

The Tabulating Machine Company becomes IBM

1924

Atanasoff-Berry Computer prototype developed by Atanasoff and Berry

1937 - 1942

John V. Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry, a professor and grad student respectively, from Iowa State University created the first computer to use vacuum tubes instead of mechanical switches for processing circuitry.

IBM Harvard Mark I

1939

Officially named the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator it was moved to Harvard where it acquired its nickname. It was also decimal-based instead of binary-based.

Z3 developed by Konrad Zuse completed

1941 - 1943

The world's first working programmable, fully automatic computing machine. Finished in 1941 and destroyed in 1943 by Allied bombing during WWII.

ENIAC development

1943 - 1946

Designed to calculate trajectory tables for the military, it wasn't finished until after the end of WWII. It was dedicated in 1946 to make atomic energy calculations and missile trajectory tables.

COLOSSUS created by British devlopers

1943

COLOSSUS successfully broke codes during WWII giving Allies an advantage.

Transistors used for regulators and switches.

1947

AT&T Bell Laboratories.

UNIVAC completed by the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp.

1951

The first commercially successful digital computer. After its completion, Remington Rand, IBM's rival, bought the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp.

Integrated Circuit development

1958

Made possible by independent research by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor.

DEC PDP-8 introduced by DEC

1965

The first commercially successful minicomputer

The advvent of third-generation computing using integrated circuits

1965

IBM 360 orders first filled

1965

Intel 4004 chip and fourth generation computers appeared

1971

Ted Hoff developed the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.

6800 8-bit processor from Motorola

1974

These processors were used in Apple II and Commodore PCs.

ex-Motorola engineers created the 6502 8-bit processor

1974

Mark-8 featured in popular electronics

July 1974

Forerunner of today's personal computer.

MITS Altair announced

1975

Considered the first commercial microcomputer

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak found Apple Computer Corporation, release Apple I

1976

Z80, an enhanced 8080 microprocessor by Zilog

1976

Enhanced 8080 microprocessor introduced by Zilog

8085 released by Intel, an enhancement of the 8080

1976

Apple II introduced

1978

IBM begins marketing 'personal computer', named IBM PC

1981

Apple Lisa introduced

1983

$10,000 price tag...

Apple Macintosh

1984

Cheaper than the Lisa.

DEC purchased by Compaq

1998

Portable computers outsell desktop computers

2005

Smartphones outsell desktop and notebook computeres

2011

Computer industry milestone...