66 CE: Rebellion against the Romans in Jerusalem begins, first Jewish Roman War.
-Destruction of the Jewish temple signifies Jerusalem’s fall to the Romans in 70 CE
115 CE: The Kitos War began, the second installment in the Jewish Roman War.
132 CE: Simon Bar Kohkba, a jewish leader leads the third revolt of the Jewish
135 CE: Rome recovers Jerusalem and Jews are expelled from the city.
The standardization of the Jewish oral law, is edited by Judah haNasi in the land of Israel.
-Roman Emperor Constantine I enacts new restrictive legislature
-Conversion of Christians to Judaism is outlawed, and congregations for religious services are cut
Jews revolt against Emperor Constantine I
-Empress Eudocia removes the ban on Jews' praying at the Temple site
-Upgrades the Yemenese Jewish center
-Yosef Dhu Nuwas' kingdom falls in a war against Axum and the Christians.
Jews of Galilee
-led by Benjamin of Tiberias
-gains autonomy in Jerusalem
-joint military campaign with ally Sassanid Empire under Khosrau II and Jewish militias from Persia
-Yehuda Halevi issues that Jews immigrate to Palestine
-He then dies in Jerusalem
-200,000 Jews are expelled from Spain
-Expelled Jews relocate to the Netherlands, Turkey, Arab lands, and Judea;
-some eventually go to South and Central America.
-Most go to Poland
-The Ukrainian Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki leads a massacre of Polish Jews
-65,000 Jews dies
-Rabbi Judah HeHasid makes Aliyah to Palestine
-Brings hundreds of followers
-French troops in Palestine surrounding the city of Acre
-Napoleon prepared a Proclamation requesting Asian and African Jews to help him conquer Jerusalem
-Issue was never passed because he is unable to conquer Acre.
-Resisted the influences of modernization that came from the European emancipation and Enlightenment movements
-Interprets and applies laws from the Torah
-Jewish militias take defense against Russians
-Modern stream of Ashkenazi Judaism
-Loose interpretation of the Torah
-More liberal religious positions
-A major wave of Jewish immigration to establish a homeland in the land of Palestine
-Book written by Theodore Herzl
-Advocating the creation of a free and independent Jewish state in the land of Israel
-Named after the Nebi Musa festival
-Took place in the Old City of Jerusalem
-5 Jews killed and over 200 wounded
-In reaction to the Balfour Decleration of 1917
-More than 250,000 Holocaust survivors make their way to Israel
-Syria, Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon and Egypt invade Israel hours after its creation
-Led by Nasser
-Israel is able to conquer more territory
-Hours before the British Mandate is due to expire
-Israel launches a strike on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan
-Israeli air force destroys most of the Arab air forces
-Defeat Arab forces and capture the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights.
-Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur
-Israel is able to recaptured lost territory and push in Egypt and Syria
-Israel invades Lebanon to push out the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
-Israel and the PLO sign
-Framework that leads to the resolution of the ongoing Israel-Palestinian conflict
-Israeli government withdraws military and settlers
-Military conflict in Northern Lebanon and Israel
-34 days of fighting
-2,000 Lebanese and 159 Israelis were killed
-Israel wanted to stop rocket fire into Israel and weapons smuggling into the Gaza strip.
-Begins ministry in 29 CE in Galilee
-Enters Jerusalem on a donkey and “cleanses the temple” in 31 CE
-To many signifies his entrance on a donkey signifies his humility
-Sentenced to death and crucified later that year
-St. Paul, who at a young age (12) went to Jerusalem and was educated by Rabbi Gamaliel (Sanhedrin), takes a ship to Cyprus (48 CE) and begins converting people into the Christian faith, then to goes Greece (50 CE)
-Was one of the many Christians executed by Nero somewhere between 60 CE and 70 CE
-Early Christian council
-Decided that Gentile converts to Christianity were not obligated to keep most of the Mosaic law, including the rules concerning circumcision of males
-Retain the prohibitions on eating blood, meat containing blood, and meat of animals not properly slain, and on fornication and idolatry
-Mark is typically said to be written first in 55 CE
-Matthew also recorded around this time
-Luke in 63 CE
-John (year unknown)
Armenian Catholic Church (1742)
-Council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea (present-day Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I.
-This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom.
-Fixes Easter date, confirms primacy of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, and grants the See of Jerusalem a position of honor.
-Constantine (Roman emperor) founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium
-Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire
-Modern day Turkey
-Hagia Sophia was completed (Istanbul, Turkey) under the rule of Emperor Constanius
-532 Destroyed in the Nika riots
-537 Second church completed
-1453 Sultan Mehmed took control over the area because he wanted to convert the region to Islam. Change the Hagia Sophia to a mosque
-Reaffirms/revises the Nicene Creed repudiating Arianism (Egypt) and Macedonianism
-St Jerome, in Bethlehem, completes the Latin translation of the Bible, which later becomes known as the Vulgate
-Commissioned by Pope Damasus I
-The definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible in the Roman Catholic Church
Held as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius, archbishop of Constantinople.
-Repudiates Nestorianism, proclaims the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiates Pelagianism, and again reaffirmes the Nicene Creed.
-Rejects the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism
-Adopts the Chalcedonian Creed
-Elevates of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates
Independence - 431
Recognition - 478
-Repudiates the Three Chapters (Orthodox Church of Syria/Egypt) as Nestorian and condemns Origen of Alexandria.
-Rejects Monothelitism and Monoenergism in Armenia/Syria
-Restores the veneration of icons and denounces iconoclasm.
1098 Crusaders take Antioch from Turks
1099 Crusaders recapture Jerusalem from Turks
The Maronites were re-discovered in the mountains near Tripoli, Lebanon. Raymond later returned to besiege Tripoli after his conquest of Jerusalem and relations between the Maronites and European Christianity were re-established.
Siege of Constantinople
Council of Florence attempts to reunite East and West
Independence of Russian Orthodox Church from the Church of Constantinople.
-1453 Sultan Mehmed II took control over the area because he wanted to convert the region to Islam. Change the Hagia Sophia to a mosque
-The Maronites started returning to southern Mount Lebanon, where they had lived before they were almost exterminated by the Mamelukes in 1307. Thus, the historic Keserwan and all the Druze mountains were repopulated. It was this love and affection between the Maronites and Druze that helped establish the Lebanese identity.
-Farmers of the predominantly Maronite Keserwan District staged an uprising against their Sheikhs and landlords, the Khazen family, the Maronite Patriarch, conscious of Karam's influence and his loyalty to the Church, appealed to Karam to save the Sheikhs and restore peace to the area
Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Athenagoras I nullified the anathemas of 1054, although this nullification of measures taken against a few individuals was essentially a goodwill gesture and did not constitute any sort of reunion between churches
-Pope John Paul II visited Lebanon to give hope to Lebanese Catholics.
-Muhammad was born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
-Muhammad travels to Yathrib (Medina) and builds the first Muslim community and gradually gathers more and more people to his side
-Mecca becomes the holy city of Islam and soon all Arabia accepts the new religion
-Brings Arab conquest of Persia, Egypt, Iraq, bringing Islam into those regions.
-Caliph Uthman has the standard copy of the Qur’an written down
-Capital is moved to Damascus (Syria)
-Ali (Rashidun Caliphate) is assassinated and Mu’awiya becomes the fifth Muslim caliph, establishing the Umayyad dynasty
-The emergence of the Shi’a party creates a major schism within Islam
-Creates major schism within Islam
-After death of Muawiya I (first caliph of Umayyad Caliphate)
-The Dome of the Rock is completed as a Muslim shrine on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
-Great Mosque of Damascus (Syria)
-It is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. It is considered by some Muslims to be the fourth-holiest place in Islam.
-Umayyad Caliphate is defeated at the Battle of Zab (Turkey/Iraq)
-Spelled the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids
-The Ismailis become a separate Shi’a sect when they dispute the succession after the death of the sixth imam
-Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph should be an imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad’s purified progeny)
Isma'il was a Twelver Shi'ite. They believe that there are 12 imams, and that God hid an imam who is the savior of mankind. Isma'il claimed to be this imam and made Persia's official religion Twelver Shi'ism