The defeat of King Pyrrhus
49 BC: Caesar turns on Rome and becomes dictator after he defeated many rivals including former friend, Pompeji.
44 BC: Caesar killed by several senators.
Marcus Antony Octavius (Augustus) and Lepidus formed a triumvate after chasing down the remaining murderers of Caesar.
Augustus declared emperor, end of Republic.
The Good Emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, and Marcus Aurelius
Emperor Diocletian splits the Roman Empire in 2: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Christianity becomes empire's official religion.
Roman Empire is permanently split into Eastern and Western Roman Empires.
Eastern Roman Empire falls to Ottoman Turks. Emperor Constantine XI was the last emperor.