Civil Rights and Vietnam

Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War, Presidents

Black Power

Malcolm X released from Prison

1952

Malcolm X Ballot or Bullet speech

1964

Malcolm X leaves Nation of Islam

1964

Assassination of Malcolm X

1965

SNCC expels white members

1966

Black Panther Party founded

1966

by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale

Black Power salute at the Olympics

1968

Free Breakfast Campaign (BPP)

1968

Civil Rights

FEPC formed

1941

Fair Employment Practices Commission - required that companies with lucrative govt contracts didn't discriminate on basis of race or religion

Smith vs. Allwright

1944

Overturned the Democrats' all white primary elections in Texas and other states

"To Secure These Rights"

1946 - 1947

Recommendations: 1) Lynching is a problem, 2) Police Brutality, 3) Voting Rights, 4) Discrimination in the armed forces, 5)Employment and Education, 6) Discrimination in Healthcare
NO IMPACT

Morgan vs. Virginia

1946

Irene Morgan refused to sit in the "black" part of an interstate bus - Thurgood Marshall won the case on the basis that if it is illegal for a state to forbid segregation it is also illegal to enforce it.
Court still DID NOT rule that segregated transport within the state is unconstitutional!

Desegregation of Armed Forces

1948

Sweatt vs. Painter

1950

Allowed black student (Sweatt) into Law School in Texas -Successful challenge to "separate but equal" doctrine (Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 interstate travel)
-Only one person

UDL Bus Boycotte in Baton Rouge

20 June 1953

Short but was a template for similar boycotts of the period

McDonogh Day Boycott (School, Lafayette)

1954

New Orleans' first organized civil rights protest

Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education

1954
  • No Deadline for white schools to deseg.
  • Only on psychological effects - couldn't be applied to anything else
  • Small increase in educational opportunities for Bs

Montgomery Bus Boycott MLK

1955 - 1956

-Ended de jure seg of buses
- Eisen. No comment - laissez faire attitude to Civil Rights
- Springboard for other campaigns
- Only affected buses - no other areas of public service affected

Emmett Till Murder

1955

Opened the effects of racism and discrimination to the world's media
- No punishment for the killers

Little Rock 9

1957
  • LR 9 accepted into school in 1960
  • Gained N support
  • Massive white resistance, failed to make deseg de facto
  • S.C. full backing - Eisen. sent troops - wrong reasons!

1st Civil Rights Act

1957

Voting Rights primarily (but brought about by Brown vs. Topeka)

2nd Civil Rights Act

1960

Addressed some of the shortcomings of the first Act
- Required local authorities to keep records of voters to ensure no obvious discriminatory patterns
- Expanded authority of federal judges to protect Voting Rights

Freedom Rides CORE

1961 - 1962
  • Focused on travel and use of Ws only facilities
  • Exposed racism in South
  • de facto deseg followed
  • JFK because supporter of CRM

Albany protest MLK

1961

Too broad
- Pritchett outwitted King
- Too few protesters, no planning and no effective deseg
- No Fed. involvement

Birmingham Protest MLK

1963

Focus- deseg of public places - Marches, boycotts, speeches etc.
- 3rd CRA - deseg of public places Nationally
- National/ Intern. media coverage
- North. W support - proof the non-vio protest can work

March on Washington MLK

1963

Pressure to pass 3rd CRA
- I Have a Dream
- 20 -30% white involvement
- All groups involved
- JFK initially tried to block March

Mississippi Freedom Summer

1964

NAACP encouraging and educating blacks to vote in Miss.
- few registered
- Local racists (KKK, govt officials, politicians) intimidated reg.

3rd Civil Rights Act

1964

Made racial discrimination and segregation illegal

Watts Riots

1965

Economic riots in the North - Chicago

Selma MLK

1965

Forced 4th CRA
- removed barriers to black voting
- Disillusionment with King's leadership
- Decisive action LBJ

Voting Rights Act

1965

Johnson

Meredith March

1966
  • Solitary march - James Meredith marching against racism
  • Joined by MLK SNCC/CORE etc.
  • Stokely Carmichael's "Black Power" Speech

MLK Assassination

1968

Fair Housing Act

1968

Equal housing opportunities regardless of colour, creed etc

Poor People's Campaign

1968

Failure - completely fizzled out without King's leadership

US Presidents

Franklin Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

Democrat

Truman

1945 - 1952

Democrat

Eisenhower

1952 - January 1961

Republican

Kennedy

January 1961 - November 1963

Democrat

Johnson

November 1963 - January 1969

Democrat

Nixon

January 1969 - August 1974
  • Won on "Peace with Honor" slogan

Vietnam

Kennan's Long Telegram

February 1946

"World Communism is like a malignant parasite that feeds on diseased tissue. One should therefore deny it opportunities by afording a more positive leadership to a war torn Europ. [Communism] is an implacable, expansionistic foe.

Truman Doctrine (Turning Point)

March 1947
  • Capitalism and Comm. unable to work together. 'It must be the policy of the US to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities. Help should be given through economic or financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes'

US begin supplying weapons for French War

1950

By the time Truman leaves office over $2bn given to French - 80% of their war costs

Dien Bien Phu

1954

Vietnamese offensive against the French

SEATO

1954

Defensive alliance to justify US military involvement if SV attacked by Communists

Eisen. refused to sign Geneva Accords

1954

Wanted to be able to send UStroops in if needed

Domino Theory

1954

Rigged elections for Diem

1955

Diem wond 98% of the vote nationally and 130% of the vote in Saigon...ahem

US block National Viet. election

1956

Because they know the Comm. will win

600 Military Advisers in

1956

To train ARVN in conventional warfare

Ho Chi Minh begins VC Uprising in SV

1959

Eisen. refuses to send troops

US helicopters use defoliants

1962 - 1971

Aim to reveal HCM trail and VC positions
-Agent Orange, Agent White and Agent Blue most used
- Nearly 19.5 million gallons sprayed on S. Vietnam

Green Berets accompanying ARVN units

1962

In Secret

Increases no. of advisors

1964

23,000 by the time the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is passed

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

August 1964

USS Maddox fired down in "neutral waters" - How true? Just an excuse for Johnson to take the war into full scale escalation?

Operation Barrel Roll

November 1964

US bombing of HCM trail following VC attack on US air base near Saigon

7 million tonnes of bombs dropped on NV

1965 - 1968

First ground troops in Vietnam

March 1965

3,500 US marines to protect US base at Da Nang following repeated VC attack of US personnel and bases

Operation Rolling Thunder

March 1965

Large scale bombing of North Vietnam, Following VC attack on Pleiku

Congress approve $700m for Vietnam

May 1965

220,000 Ground troops

Dec 1965

Swtich from 'active defence' to 'Search and Destroy' tactics

1966

"If its dead and its gook its VC"

385,000 Ground Troops

Dec 1966

535,000 Ground Troops

1968

Tet Offensive

1968

National holiday - traditional ceasefire
- VC aim to trigger national rebellion in SV against USA
- US embassy overrun in Saigon - symbolic victory
- US base at Khe Sanh about to be overrun - distraction
- Hue taken by Communists
- Significant reaction from press (the Walter Cronkite report)

Operation Menu

1969

Secret bombing of Cambodia to destroy Communist headquarters - looking for COSVN (NO IMPACT)

Vietnamisation

1969

My Lai Massacre

1969

Invasion of Cambodia

1970

Find COSVN
Disrupt HCM trail
NO IMPACT and V. unpopular at home

Repeal of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1970

Lam Som Offensive, Laos

February 1971

Proved that ARVN couldn't maintain morale or leadership and couldn't use hardware effectively or successfully

Lineback I

March 1972

Us bombing NV to stop attack and bully NV into negotiations
- result of failure of Vietnamisation

Linebacker II

Nov 1972

To force Thieu to agree to peace Tr. by reassuring him America would help if SV was in trouble
- Most intense bombing of the war.
- Hugely unpopular internationally

Peace deals

November 1972

Peace in return for POWs

Ceasefire

27 January 1973

Watergate

1974

SEA Events

Not Vietnam

Communist insurgency in Indonesia - Economic Aid from Truman

1948

Communist Uprising in Malaysia

1948 - 1960

Resisted by British - Truman concerned but sent no support

China 'falls' to Communism

1949

Truman severely criticized for losing China
- Could not afford the loss of another Asian country after China

7th Fleet to Taiwan

1950
  • Where Nationalists had fled
  • Sent fleet to protect them from Chinese Communist invasion

North Korea invades South Korea

June 1950

Truman sent US troops to drive N.K. back

Chinese joins N.K. army

November 1950

Truman commits more troops to avoid defeat

Truman leaves Office - US deep in Korea

1953

v. damaging war

Eisen. signs ceasefire ending Korean War

1953

$7bn to Diem

1955 - 1961

Malaysia falls to Communism

1957

Not a threat in itself but an island that could directly affect other countries